Haraj

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Haraj

 

a land tax collected in the countries of the Near and Middle East. Known as harag in the Sassanid state, it was introduced as part of the tax reforms of Kavadh I and Khosrau I Anushirvan. In the caliphate, the haraj was at first exacted from the non-Muslim population, and later from Muslim landholders as well. Before the time of the Abbasids, the tax was generally levied on the basis of units of land area; in the second half of the eighth century, in some parts of the caliphate, the practice was to make taxation proportional to the harvest. In the Ottoman Empire the haraj and the jizya had merged into one by the end of the 18th century. In Egypt the haraj was replaced by the income tax in 1907.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Central President of the All Pakistan Colleges and Schools Association Malik Ibrar lead the rally, while Senior Vice President Malik Deen Muhammad Awan, Secretary General Muhammad Ashraf Haraj, Punjab President Alyas Kiani, and the heads of the private schools from Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the teachers and a large number of students were also participated in the rally.
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He expressed these views in a meeting with a delegation led by Punjab Minister for Minorities Affair Ijaz Alam and ex-MNA Raza Hayat Haraj on Sunday.
The governor was speaking at a meeting with a delegation led by Punjab Minorities Affairs Minister Ijaz Alam and former MNA Raza Hayat Haraj at Governor House on Sunday.
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The anti-corruption unit official said that they have launched an investigation against District Accounts Officer Riaz Haraj and auditor Ramzan Meo.
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