Haraj

Haraj

 

a land tax collected in the countries of the Near and Middle East. Known as harag in the Sassanid state, it was introduced as part of the tax reforms of Kavadh I and Khosrau I Anushirvan. In the caliphate, the haraj was at first exacted from the non-Muslim population, and later from Muslim landholders as well. Before the time of the Abbasids, the tax was generally levied on the basis of units of land area; in the second half of the eighth century, in some parts of the caliphate, the practice was to make taxation proportional to the harvest. In the Ottoman Empire the haraj and the jizya had merged into one by the end of the 18th century. In Egypt the haraj was replaced by the income tax in 1907.

References in periodicals archive ?
While eight ministers of state include Sardar Shahjahan Yousaf, Sheikh Waqas Akram, Sardar Bahadur Khan Sehar, Muhammad Raza Hayat Haraj, Akram Masih Gill, Dr.
Raids also took place in south Riyadh's Haraj bin Gassem market.
By Ayman Adly/Staff Reporter There have been reports that Souq Haraj in Najma may soon be razed to make way for an upmarket commercial centre and two hotels, but these have not affected business at the market famous for selling used goods.
Islamabad, March 13, 2011 (Frontier Star): Chairman Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA) Hamid Yar Haraj has said that removing the worries of the people in the earthquake hit area through public representatives , provincial as well as district government was the top priority of the government.
They (agents) are spreading rumours about demolitions and spreading a scare amongst residents of many apartments in the area, in particular those staying in old buildings," said a tenant living in an old apartment near Souq Haraj.
By ISLAMABAD, November 25, 2010 (Frontier Star): State Minister and president PPP Punjab chapter, Imtiaz Safdar Warraich has said that he was not assigned any task against any political party, adding appointment of Hamid Yar Haraj as Chairman Erra is not result of any deal.
At Doha's Souq Haraj, it is a win-win situation for both buyers and sellers.
Committee Chairman Riaz Hussain Pirzada said that several constructors have been given contracts in ERRA and PAC would monitor it, on which Hamid Haraj said that special audit of ERRA has already been prepared.
At least five shops were destroyed in a fire that broke out in Souq Al Haraj in Najma yesterday morning.
SHO Seetal Mari Bashir Haraj said that police were still busy in ascertaining the amount of cash looted in the incident.
Raza Hayat Haraj said despite unanimous resolution by both Houses of Parliament, US is not ready to release Dr Aafia and stop drone strikes inside Pakistan.
Now bus passengers can buy and top up their Smartcards through Jumbo Electronics outlets located in City Center Doha, Barwa Village, Souq Faleh, Najma's Souq al Haraj, Al Rayyan, Mesaieed, and Al Khor.