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see Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization,
ancient civilization that arose about 3300 B.C. in the valley of the Indus River and its tributaries, in the northwestern portion of the Indian subcontinent, i.e., present-day Pakistan, and was at its height from about 2600 B.C. to about 1900 B.C.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the ruins of one of the chief centers of the Harappan civilization, located near an old bed of the Ravi River, near Multan, Pakistan. The ruins were discovered by R. Sahni in 1921 and subsequently investigated by M. S. Vats, M. Wheeler, and G. F. Dales. The settlement occupied an area of more than 260 hectares and consisted of a citadel and the lower city. The lower city, laid out according to a well-defined plan, was divided into various quarters and separate production complexes, the latter including granaries, round grain-pounding platforms, and a foundry. Other objects of material culture found at Harappa are characteristic of all the settlements of the Harappan civilization.


Vats, M. S. Excavations at Harappa, vols. 1–2. Delhi, 1940.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


an ancient city in the Punjab in NW Pakistan: one of the centres of the Indus civilization that flourished from 2500 to 1700 bc; probably destroyed by Indo-European invaders
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Kili Gul Mohammad Ruins 8,000 years back, Moen-jo-Daro 7,000 years back, Harapa 5,000 years back and the Ruins at Aamri Sindh to the stone age.
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He opined that there is a need to work on preservation of old buildings and sites not only in Lahore but also in other historic cities like Texila and Harapa.
The area Pakistan where one of the oldest civilization Harapa and