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see Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization,
ancient civilization that arose about 3300 B.C. in the valley of the Indus River and its tributaries, in the northwestern portion of the Indian subcontinent, i.e., present-day Pakistan, and was at its height from about 2600 B.C. to about 1900 B.C.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the ruins of one of the chief centers of the Harappan civilization, located near an old bed of the Ravi River, near Multan, Pakistan. The ruins were discovered by R. Sahni in 1921 and subsequently investigated by M. S. Vats, M. Wheeler, and G. F. Dales. The settlement occupied an area of more than 260 hectares and consisted of a citadel and the lower city. The lower city, laid out according to a well-defined plan, was divided into various quarters and separate production complexes, the latter including granaries, round grain-pounding platforms, and a foundry. Other objects of material culture found at Harappa are characteristic of all the settlements of the Harappan civilization.


Vats, M. S. Excavations at Harappa, vols. 1–2. Delhi, 1940.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


an ancient city in the Punjab in NW Pakistan: one of the centres of the Indus civilization that flourished from 2500 to 1700 bc; probably destroyed by Indo-European invaders
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Washington, Jan 20 ( ANI ): Researchers have discovered that violence, infectious diseases and changes in climate were responsible for the collapse of the ancient Indus city of Harappa almost 4,000 years ago.
The inquiry proved the cheque was deposited with the account of a local journalist, Mahmood Khalid Chaudhry, publisher of Daily Sada-i-Dastoor, in Harappa branch of the private bank.
Harappa was discovered in 1826 and first excavated in 1920 and 1921 by the Archaeological Survey of India,
of archeological site of Harappa and attraction of maximum tourists
Rana Mashhood Ahmad said that civilization and archives of Harappa have more importance than Mohenjo-Daro and Taxila in Pakistan which are losing their existence due to not paying attention.
Harappa (near modern-day Sahiwal) also provides clues as to the extent of the trade network, as beads seashells and stones have been recovered from the site, which were not available locally.
The objects link to Harappa and Moen Jo Daro civilization.
It ranged from mangroves in the south, to the 5,000-year-old cities of the Indus Valley Civilization which included Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. The main destinations of choice for tourists to Pakistan are the Swat, Lahore, KhyberPass, Peshawar, Karachi and Rawalpindi.
Ghulam Mustafa further said that the skeletons found near Harappa are like modern residents of Punjab whereas the skeletons found from Mohen Jo Daro look like residents of Modern Sindh.
Prior to the big event, PNCA organized a series of regional exhibitions representing all provinces, which were given relevant context according to the cultural heritage of the land such as; from Mehergarh to Quetta, from Harappa to Lahore via Katas, from Akra to Peshawar via Takht Bai, from Mohenjo-Daro to Karachi via Makli and from Takht bai to Islamabad, he said.
According to the Telegraph, a new study of clay pots and ceramic tablets discovered almost 70 years ago in Harappa, now in Pakistan, the people of the Indus Valley had a detailed system of commodity value, weights and measures.
Few among us have been fortunate enough to inherit what he did; the soul and sufferings of Harappa, incredible tales of the Ravi [the Sahiwal region is usually referred to as Ravi] and stunning legends of indomitable Raths [lords] of Bar who would not bat an eye to battle the whole world to save a friend in trouble when requested and would fight to their last breath to redeem their honour if challenged.