Indus valley civilization

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Indus valley civilization,

ancient civilization that flourished from about 2500 B.C. to about 1500 B.C. in the valley of the Indus River and its tributaries, in the northwestern portion of the Indian subcontinent, i.e., present-day Pakistan. At its height, its geographical reach exceeded that of Egypt or Mesopotamia. Since 1921 this civilization has been revealed by spectacular finds at Mohenjo-Daro, an archaeological site in NW Sind, and at Harappa, in central Punjab near the Ravi River. These sites, each of which measures more than 3 mi (5 km) in circumference, were once great urban centers, the chief cities of the Indus civilization. They had large and complex hill citadels, housing palaces, granaries, and baths that were probably used for sacred ablutions; the great bath at Mohenjo-Daro was c.40 ft (12 m) long and 23 ft (7 m) wide. Beyond the citadels were well-planned towns, laid out in rectangular patterns. Houses, often two-storied and spacious, lined the town streets; they had drainage systems that led into brick-lined sewers. The economy of the Indus civilization was based on a highly organized agriculture, supplemented by an active commerce, probably connected to that of the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia. The arts flourished there, and many objects of copper, bronze, and pottery, including a large collection of terra-cotta toys, have been uncovered. Most notable, however, are the steatite seals, exquisitely engraved with animal figures and often bearing a line of pictographic script. On some seals are depicted a bo tree or, as some authorities hold, a Babylonian tree of life, and others have as their central figure the god Shiva, who later became preeminent in the Hindu pantheon. The writing, long a riddle to archaeologists, has yet to be satisfactorily deciphered; the language appears to be structurally related to the Dravidian languages. The origin, rise, and decline of the Indus valley civilization remain a mystery, but it seems most probable that the civilization fell (c.1500 B.C.) to invading AryansAryan
, [Sanskrit,=noble], term formerly used to designate the Indo-European race or language family or its Indo-Iranian subgroup. Originally a group of nomadic tribes, the Aryans were part of a great migratory movement that spread in successive waves from S Russia and Turkistan
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See Sir John Marshall, Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization (3 vol., 1931); E. J. H. MacKay, The Indus Civilization (1935, repr. 1983); S. Piggott, Prehistoric India (1950); Sir Mortimer Wheeler, The Indus Civilization (3d ed. 1968); J. H. Hawkes, The First Great Civilizations (1973); N. Lahiri, Finding Forgotten Cities: How the Indus Civilization was Discovered (2013).

References in periodicals archive ?
THE Indus Valley civilisation, popularly known as Harappan civilisation, has been a puzzle for several decades now.
Lothal is one of the main sites of the Indus Valley or Harappan Civilisation, dating back to 2400BC.
The museum will display six models of boats including ones that were used during the Harappan civilisation as well as boats in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Bengal and Bangladesh.
The Indus or Harappan civilisation - more than 4,000 years ago - stretched from what is known today as Pakistan to eastern Afghanistan, covering more than 625,000 square miles, rivalling the ancient civilisations of Egypt and Mesopotamia.
These follow a chronological order and are devoted to: Mesopotamian hero figures, horned figures in the Harappan civilisation, Hittite iconography, Minoan images (three chapters), the role of hunting and livestock in Iron Age Greece, Cypriot sanctuaries, Iraq and Iran from Neo-Assyrian to Persian times, Eurasian steppe societies, Iron Age temperate Europe and Celtic art (two chapters, one by Arnold and one expertly translated from the German by her), the Orientalizing period of Etruscan Italy and finally Migration period Europe.
While places such as Somnath and Gir continue to get tourists, it is the success of less-trod places such as the Little Rann and Dholavira (India's largest Harappan civilisation site, where excavation is still on) that has got Thakar excited.
What the dating evidence currently suggests is that this transfer of African crops took place at the end of the Harappan era, perhaps as the urban Harappan civilisation was undergoing its transformative de-urbanisation process (see Ratnagar 2000; Madella & Fuller 2006).
Lothal and Dholavira, two sites of Harappan Civilisation are located in Saurashtra and Dholavira respectively.
While the village cries for development, soil holds the remains of the largest city of the Indus Valley civilisation, also known as the Harappan civilisation, where houses were made of large bricks, roads were 1.
The mature phase of the Harappan Civilisation, centred on the River Indus (Figure 1), has been characterised as having rigid urban planning, standardised systems of seals and weights, striking cultural uniformity over a vast area, and an absence of temples, palaces, elite burials and warfare in comparison to Egypt and Mesopotamia (see especially Piggott 1962; Wheeler 1968).
Lothal, one of the most fascinating remnants of the ancient Harappan civilisation, covers an area of 64752[m.
1919) hasn't got his due for being the first archaeologist to surmise the existence of the Harappan Civilisation.