flavicarpa is a specie that presents seeds involved by aril and hard seed
coat with a semi-permeable inner layer (Delanoy et al., 2006), which confers a combination of physical and physiological dormancy (Alexandre et al., 2004).
Soaking the seeds or chipping the hard seed
coats with a sharp knife will speed up the germination process.
To correct for non-normality the statistical analysis was done on arcsine transformed values for germination rate and hard seed
. For data analysis the SPSS version 11.0 (SPSS inc., USA) and STATISTICA version 8 (StatSoft, Inc.
Most pumpkin seeds have a hard seed
coat, requiring you to "shell" the seed.
Once dragged back to the colony, the energy-laden accessory is removed for consumption, and the hard seed
body is dumped in a waste pit where it may ultimately sprout.
Although hard seed
coat improves the survival of seeds in the soil especially in adverse environmental conditions and helps to avoid extinction of species in nature, it may prevent use of plant cultivars or wild-type relatives for agricultural or breeding purposes [20,21].
The African oil bean seed is normally boiled for up to 12 hours or more to remove the hard seed
The risk of seed escape is heightened by the fact that harvested alfalfa seed often contains some "hard seed
," which is unable to absorb water due to its hard seed
Exogenous dormancy, originated from a chemical inhibitor is present in the seed coat and hard seed
nummularia is not easy because of hard seed
coat and in nature conditions the seeds are able to germinate by aging and weathering in soil during months to one year [10,6, 9,4].
Persistent-seeded species, including species with hard seed
coats or other enforced dormancy, remain as dormant individuals until exposed to the proper germination cues (Baskin and Baskin, 1989).
This seed will not germinate and is called hard seed
. These seed coatings must be abraded or scratched (scarified) to enable germination.