hard disk drive

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hard disk drive

(storage)
(HDD) A disk drive used to read and write hard disks.

hard disk

The primary computer storage medium, which is made of one or more aluminum or glass platters, coated with a ferromagnetic material. Although the terms "hard disk" and "hard drive" are used synonymously; technically, the disk spins inside the drive.

All computers used to have an internal hard disk for storage; however, today, storage can be solid state (see SSD). External hard disks can be plugged into USB or a eSATA port for more storage.

Hard disks are "fixed disks," which means the platters reside permanently in the drive. In the past, removable cartridges for backup and transport contained the platters (see removable disk).

Storage... Not Memory
Hard disks are not the computer's main memory. Disks store programs and data until deliberately deleted by the user, but memory (RAM) is a temporary workspace. To learn how this workspace is used to process data, see memory. For a summary of memory and storage types, see storage vs. memory.

Capacity and Speed
Capacity is measured in bytes, and the largest drives hold up to 10 terabytes. Speed is measured by transfer rate in megabytes per second as well as latency: how long it takes to begin transferring data, typically 3 to 15 milliseconds (ms). By comparison, CDs/DVDs take 80 to 120 ms.

The platters rotate constantly at thousands of RPM; however, to preserve battery, laptops default to powering them down after a set period of no activity. This mechanical action is why hard disks are slowly fading into history and being replaced with SSDs (see SSD). See hard drive capacity, access time and transfer rate.

Disks Come Pre-Formatted
Hard disks are pre-formatted at the factory, which divides the platters into identifiable sectors. For more details on disk structure, see magnetic disk, format program, hard disk defect management and drop protection.

Hard Disk Types
Over the years, several kinds of hard disks have emerged. Today, SATA drives are the most common, although SAS drives are also used. For more details, see SATA, SAS, SCSI and hard disk interfaces.


Non-Removable Internal Hard Disk
Hard disks use one or more metal or glass platters covered with a magnetic coating. In this drawing, the cover is removed.







First Hard Disk Computer (1956)
Extraordinary technology, IBM's RAMAC was part computer, part tabulator and the first computer with a hard disk. (Image courtesy of IBM.)







Five Megabytes Total
Each of the RAMAC's 50 platters two feet in diameter held a whopping 100,000 characters. Today, the capacity of all 50 would fit on the head of a pin. (Image courtesy of IBM.)







First Personal Computer Hard Disk (1979)
In 1979, Seagate introduced the first hard disk for personal computers with 5MB on two 5.25" platters, the same capacity as all 50 platters in the RAMAC. Today, platters are 3.5" for desktops and 2.5" and 1.8" for laptops. See ST506. (Image courtesy of Seagate Technology, Inc.)







Four Decades After RAMAC (1998)
This 47GB Seagate drive held 100,000 times as much data as the RAMAC. Today, 20 times more storage is available on a flash drive (see USB drive). (Image courtesy of Seagate Technology, Inc.)







World's Smallest (2005)
The size of a postage stamp, the Microdrive was a less-than-one-inch hard disk for mobile devices with up to 8GB of storage (see Microdrive).
References in periodicals archive ?
<p>Until the advent of SSD, standard PC storage relied on magnetic hard-disk technology, which has numerous moving parts (including a spindle motor, an actuator assembly, and read/write heads that float barely 10 nanometers above the spinning platter surface).<p>By contrast, SSD storage consists of NAND flash-memory chips.
The European Commission announced on 27 April that it has cleared the proposed merger of two US manufacturers of hard-disk drives, Seagate and Maxtor.
It captures images, sound and stills not onto tape, but into a Microdrive hard-disk, which is cleverly located, alongside the battery, in the unit's adjustable-angle handgrip.
Flash memory, chip and hard-disk drive manufacturers, as well as storage system, consumer device manufacturers, and software companies gathered to discuss how to integrate digital storage into consumer products such as cell phones, MP3 players, home networking, and set-top boxes at the Storage Visions Conference held in Las Vegas, January 4-5, 2005.
The NW-HD1 joins Sony's two earlier portable hard-disk drive music players weighing about 200 grams.
Hard-disk drives provide high-capacity (greater than 100 gigabytes) and moderate access times in an affordable package but, like RAM, are neither removable nor archival, even though in recent years the swap-out capability of drives and media has lead to a change in thinking about the removability of hard disk systems.
Anyhow, the CitiDisk comes in 20, 40 or 60-gig hard-disk configurations and owners can store recordings for up to 80 minutes with the 20GB model and four hours with the 60GB version.
Known technically as "antiferromagnetically-coupled (AFC) media," the new multilayer coating is expected to permit hard-disk drives to store 100 billion bits (gigabits) of data per square inch of disk area by 2003.
Burn is a freeware application that completely obliterates files from your hard-disk drive.
This specialized CD/DVD server connects directly to your network, and is operating-system and server independent, providing clients in heterogeneous network environments with simultaneous access to CD/DVD-ROM libraries at hard-disk speeds.
Software is loaded from the hard-disk drive into RAM.
Why this is so: In the pre-Windows 98 FAT16 format, the minimum hard-disk storage unit (called a cluster) for even the smallest file is 32 kilobytes (Kb).