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trees and shrubs, mostly with lamelliform leaves that are distinguished by reticulate venation and more or less clearly defined petioles. Hardwoods belong to the division of angiosperms, and originated later than the conifers (which belong to the division of gymnosperms). They differ from conifers in that they have an ovary which, after fertilization, turns into a fruit (the conifers form seeds). Their wood consists of a variety of elements, whereas the wood of conifers only has tracheids. Hardwoods are divided into those with hard wood (oak, beech, hornbeam, ash, maple, and saxaul) and those with soft wood (birch, aspen, alder, linden, and poplar).

Some species, such as linden and filbert, demand good soils; others, such as birch and black locust, are relatively undemanding. Distinctions are made between hardwoods that are frost resistant (birch and aspen) and thermophilic (apricot, smoke tree, and honey locust), between those that require light and grow rapidly (birch and poplar) and those that tolerate shade but grow slowly (linden and hornbeam), between those with long life-spans (oak and beech) and those with short life-spans (aspen and poplar), and between those that are drought resistant (saxaul, pistachio, and oleaster) and those that are salt tolerant (honey locust, saxaul, and sumac). These trees and shrubs propagate from seeds and vegetatively.

Hardwoods are grown for their wood, as shelterbelts, for stabilizing soils, and for landscaping. They yield industrial raw materials (spindle tree, eucommia, oak, and privet) and various food products, including fruits (quince and filbert), honey (linden, acacia, and willow), spices (laurel and kochia), and medicinal preparations (viburnum, birch, honeysuckle, linden, and sea buckthorn).


References in periodicals archive ?
Since having our first plant FSC certified we have noticed a steady increase in demand for FSC certified hardwood decking and lumber.
The total exports of US hardwood lumber to the Middle East and North Africa (Mena) region reached a value of $56.
Over the next three to four years, we believe that demand for US hardwoods in the GCC area will increase considerably, as the number of construction projects gathers momentum once again.
hardwoods to the region," said Roderick Wiles, AHEC director for Africa, Middle East, South Asia and Oceania.
UHP is a coalition of more than 20 hardwood trade associations and leading product manufacturers who have come together to give the industry a cohesive identity and tools to elevate American Hardwoods as the building material of choice in products ranging from cabinetry and furniture to flooring and millwork.
The announcement complements AHEC's mission to promote the environmental credentials of American hardwoods in the face of emerging public and private sector procurement policies.
The burgeoning domestic furniture, flooring, door and interior joinery sectors are expected to continue to drive up demand for imported hardwoods for the foreseeable future.
This will be followed by a practical demonstration of the grading rules for North American hardwoods, which will be conducted by former Chief Inspector of the National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA) and AHECAAES grading consultant, Bob Sabistina
In addition, a lecture on the environmental credentials of American hardwoods will be delivered by AHEC Chairman Orn Gudmundsson Jr, which will be followed by a workshop on grading American hardwood lumber.
Results showing Europe as the largest export market for Appalachian hardwoods were consistent with findings of a previous survey conducted in 2002 by Hammett et al.
Hardwood Floor Store are Lanarkshire's largest independent laminate and hardwood flooring specialists and, to celebrate their 8th Birthday, they have now opened a fabulous new store @ Hawkhead Carpets, 1 Scotts Road, Paisley.
MANAMA: US hardwood product exports to the Middle East and North Africa (Mena) region reached $52.