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trees and shrubs, mostly with lamelliform leaves that are distinguished by reticulate venation and more or less clearly defined petioles. Hardwoods belong to the division of angiosperms, and originated later than the conifers (which belong to the division of gymnosperms). They differ from conifers in that they have an ovary which, after fertilization, turns into a fruit (the conifers form seeds). Their wood consists of a variety of elements, whereas the wood of conifers only has tracheids. Hardwoods are divided into those with hard wood (oak, beech, hornbeam, ash, maple, and saxaul) and those with soft wood (birch, aspen, alder, linden, and poplar).

Some species, such as linden and filbert, demand good soils; others, such as birch and black locust, are relatively undemanding. Distinctions are made between hardwoods that are frost resistant (birch and aspen) and thermophilic (apricot, smoke tree, and honey locust), between those that require light and grow rapidly (birch and poplar) and those that tolerate shade but grow slowly (linden and hornbeam), between those with long life-spans (oak and beech) and those with short life-spans (aspen and poplar), and between those that are drought resistant (saxaul, pistachio, and oleaster) and those that are salt tolerant (honey locust, saxaul, and sumac). These trees and shrubs propagate from seeds and vegetatively.

Hardwoods are grown for their wood, as shelterbelts, for stabilizing soils, and for landscaping. They yield industrial raw materials (spindle tree, eucommia, oak, and privet) and various food products, including fruits (quince and filbert), honey (linden, acacia, and willow), spices (laurel and kochia), and medicinal preparations (viburnum, birch, honeysuckle, linden, and sea buckthorn).


References in periodicals archive ?
Hardwood Floor Store are Lanarkshire's largest independent laminate and hardwood flooring specialists and, to celebrate their 8th Birthday, they have now opened a fabulous new store @ Hawkhead Carpets, 1 Scotts Road, Paisley.
More than 15 hardwood-exporting companies will display their products at the American Hardwood Pavilion.
Hardwood floors are overtaking laminate and carpets as the must have flooring choice for style-conscious homeowners.
Perhaps not as prominent but just as important are its upland and bottomland hardwood forests, the latter a threatened natural community in North Carolina.
The major differences between hardwood pulps depend partly on their special features and partly on the final markets.
So your neighbors have installed hardwood floors throughout their house - the kitchen, living room, bathrooms, even the laundry room.
In buying Washington Hardwoods, Rosboro was looking for diversification that would broaden Rosboro's focus beyond commodities and allow the company to put its building-products expertise to use in a new venue - a value-added specialty niche - Walsh said.
Their main concerns were disappearing hardwood forests, impacts on wildlife and waterways, and clearcutting.
This article shows you how to buy hardwood lumber for shelving, cabinets, crafts and furniture projects.
24 February 2015 - US-based hardwood lumber manufacturer Northwest Hardwoods Inc.
3 trillion, the outlook for the GCC's construction sector remains positive and we expect sustained demand for American hardwoods, mainly in interior joinery, flooring and furniture, as projects near their completion dates.