Harlem


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Harlem,

residential and business section of upper Manhattan, New York City, bounded roughly by 110th St., the East River and Harlem River, 168th St., Amsterdam Ave., and Morningside Park. The Dutch settlement of Nieuw Haarlem was established by Peter Stuyvesant in 1658. To the W of Harlem, near the present site of Columbia Univ., British and Continental forces fought (Sept. 16, 1776) the Battle of Harlem Heights. Harlem remained rural until the 19th cent. when improved transportation facilities linked it with lower Manhattan. It then became a fashionable residential section of New York City. By the turn of the century Harlem had a large Jewish population; starting around 1910 Harlem became the scene of increasing African-American migration from the South. It soon became the largest and most influential African-American community in the nation, one of the centers of innovation in jazz, and the home of such Harlem Renaissance authors as Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, and Zora Neale Hurston. In East Harlem, a largely Italian neighborhood—the home of Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia—many Puerto Ricans and other Hispanic-Americans settled after World War II. Seventh Ave. at 125th Street is generally considered the heart of Harlem; Lenox Ave., once internationally known for its entertainment spots, is now mainly lined with housing developments. Harlem is the site of the Abyssinian Baptist Church, headed for many years by Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., and the Apollo theater, noted for performances by African-American musicians and entertainers. An extensive scholarly collection is housed at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture (part of the New York Public Library), which is adjacent to the Countee Cullen branch of the Library. Harlem today is a depressed economic area with considerable unemployment; much of its housing is substandard. There has been some gentrification and a return of middle-class blacks to the neighborhood.

Bibliography

See G. Osofsky, Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto (1966); J. S. Gurock, When Harlem Was Jewish (1979); C. L. Greenberg, Or Does It Explode: Black Harlem in the Thirties (1991); S. Rhodes-Pitts, Harlem Is Nowhere (2011); C. J. Bergara, Harlem: The Unmaking of a Ghetto (2013).

Harlem

 

a section of New York City (USA) populated mainly by Negroes (the Negro or black ghetto) and located in the northeastern part of the island of Manhattan. Originally, Harlem was a village founded by the Dutch in 1636, who brought the first shipment of Negro slaves there. In 1731 it was incorporated into New York. The rise of black ghettos such as Harlem was associated with a policy of racial segregation and discrimination. Harlem is characterized by over-crowdedness, higher apartment rents, lack of elementary sanitary conditions, an acute shortage of hospitals and schools, and the extreme poverty and high mortality rate of the inhabitants. Harlem is one of the centers of the Negro movement in the USA. The largest manifestations of the movement occurred in the autumn of 1959 in protest against segregation in education, in the summer of 1964, after a policeman murdered a Negro teen-ager, and in the spring of 1968 in connection with the assassination of the leader of the Negro movement, M. L. King.

V. A. TISHKOV

Harlem

a district of New York City, in NE Manhattan: now largely a Black ghetto
References in periodicals archive ?
Today Drakeford is an active community leader in Harlem serving on the Board of Trustees of the New East Harlem Merchant's Association (NEHMA), Harlem Community Development Corp, Salvation Army Advisory Board for the East Harlem Citadel and New York College of Podiatric Medicine.
And Fotoglidi came to East Harlem three years ago from Murray Hill when she bought a brownstone on 116th Street as an investment.
In this modern morality tale, Harlem Renaissance--luminary Langston Hughes pokes fun at the excesses of the black church, but never does he mock the black church itself.
The basement of Ephesus Church on 123rd Street and Lenox Avenue in New York City is where Turnball started his Boys Choir of Harlem in 1968.
They also distanced themselves from the indigenous "United Colored Democracy," a group of patronage recipients, but who for years had not done much to raise Black political involvement in Harlem. To distinguish themselves Jones and his group called themselves "New Democrats." Explaining their repudiation of the Republican Party, and the main political objective of their early years as a nascent political group, Jones recalled in 1983:</p> <pre> However, we, the New Democrats, made up in great part by West Indian immigrants, had no such allegiance and could work, secondly, for the election of Black judges.
Community leaders and cultural leaders, including Congressman Charles Rangel and Lloyd Williams, founder of Harlem Week, hailed the festival which attracted major directors like Antoine Fuqua, Charles Stone and Melvin Van Peebles, major producers like Lee Daniels, and triple-threat movie stars like Mario Van Peebles.
After an introduction that provides a brief historical overview of the Harlem Renaissance, Jones argues that Fauset deconstructs the black bourgeois through her appropriation of the Kunstlerroman.
For example, WE ACT and Columbia center researchers collaborated on a pilot study that examined how air pollution from buses and trucks in West Harlem may be adversely affecting the respiratory health of adolescents who attend school in this community.
As a sideline Webb trained beauty contestants, rehearsing them as though they were preparing for a show and chaperoning them when they visited Harlem cabarets and businesses to drum up support.
For professional historians, this book further dissects the illusion of unity in America's last "Good War." Harlem at War is not significant for historiographical originality; rather, it is valuable because it establishes the universe of knowledge available to a relatively-educated Harlem resident in the 1940s.
Harlem resident McGuinness also serves as a board member of the Harlem Arts Festival.
Now, as the market has slowed and real estate experts scramble to pinpoint exactly which not-so-prime areas are going to get hit hardest, the question becomes, "How will Harlem weather the storm?"