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residential and business section of upper Manhattan, New York City, bounded roughly by 110th St., the East River and Harlem River, 168th St., Amsterdam Ave., and Morningside Park. The Dutch settlement of Nieuw Haarlem was established by Peter Stuyvesant in 1658. To the W of Harlem, near the present site of Columbia Univ., British and Continental forces fought (Sept. 16, 1776) the Battle of Harlem Heights. Harlem remained rural until the 19th cent. when improved transportation facilities linked it with lower Manhattan. It then became a fashionable residential section of New York City. By the turn of the century Harlem had a large Jewish population; starting around 1910 Harlem became the scene of increasing African-American migration from the South. It soon became the largest and most influential African-American community in the nation, one of the centers of innovation in jazz, and the home of such Harlem Renaissance authors as Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, and Zora Neale Hurston. In East Harlem, a largely Italian neighborhood—the home of Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia—many Puerto Ricans and other Hispanic-Americans settled after World War II. Seventh Ave. at 125th Street is generally considered the heart of Harlem; Lenox Ave., once internationally known for its entertainment spots, is now mainly lined with housing developments. Harlem is the site of the Abyssinian Baptist Church, headed for many years by Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., and the Apollo theater, noted for performances by African-American musicians and entertainers. An extensive scholarly collection is housed at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture (part of the New York Public Library), which is adjacent to the Countee Cullen branch of the Library. Harlem today is a depressed economic area with considerable unemployment; much of its housing is substandard. There has been some gentrification and a return of middle-class blacks to the neighborhood.


See G. Osofsky, Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto (1966); J. S. Gurock, When Harlem Was Jewish (1979); C. L. Greenberg, Or Does It Explode: Black Harlem in the Thirties (1991); S. Rhodes-Pitts, Harlem Is Nowhere (2011); C. J. Bergara, Harlem: The Unmaking of a Ghetto (2013).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a section of New York City (USA) populated mainly by Negroes (the Negro or black ghetto) and located in the northeastern part of the island of Manhattan. Originally, Harlem was a village founded by the Dutch in 1636, who brought the first shipment of Negro slaves there. In 1731 it was incorporated into New York. The rise of black ghettos such as Harlem was associated with a policy of racial segregation and discrimination. Harlem is characterized by over-crowdedness, higher apartment rents, lack of elementary sanitary conditions, an acute shortage of hospitals and schools, and the extreme poverty and high mortality rate of the inhabitants. Harlem is one of the centers of the Negro movement in the USA. The largest manifestations of the movement occurred in the autumn of 1959 in protest against segregation in education, in the summer of 1964, after a policeman murdered a Negro teen-ager, and in the spring of 1968 in connection with the assassination of the leader of the Negro movement, M. L. King.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


a district of New York City, in NE Manhattan: now largely a Black ghetto
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
This history of the Abyssinian Baptist Church of Harlem, New York, is illustrated with 30 pages of b&w historical photos.
NNA - Two women have died after a gas leak sparked an explosion which levelled two buildings in East Harlem, New York City, as the BBC reported.
Wilson shows that residents of Harlem, New York City in the 1920s faced severe overcrowding that caused numerous health problems.
In the video, Cannon invites people to attend the September 7 march in Harlem, New York, which it recently renamed "Millions for Trayvon" in the aftermath of the acquittal of George Zimmerman in the shooting death of an unarmed black youth, Trayvon Martin, in Sanford, Florida.
The Harlem Shake dance originates from Harlem, New York. It became an online trend in February 2013 after a YouTube video of a group dancing the Shake went viral.
Harlem, New York, high school basketball star and honor student Francisco Vicioso is awarded a full scholarship his senior year to an elite preparatory school.
Joining Katy on the bill is US rapper and singer Azealia Banks, from Harlem, New York. Signed to Universal Records, Banks is tipped as the hottest new act of 2012 and has already topped NME's "Cool List" for the year.
It's the answer for 'stuck' classrooms with bored kids and frustrated teachers and comes from an author who left his own classroom in East Harlem, New York to teach a different approach to education.
The famous theatre in Harlem, New York helped launch the career of huge artists including Ella Fitzgerald, Billie Holiday and the Jackson 5.
Although often relegated to the Eastern shores of North America, particularly Harlem, New York, as Laurie Champion and Bruce Glasrud remind us in their imaginatively creative edited collection of writer Anita Scott Coleman's work, the Harlem Renaissance's stirring ideology transcended the boundaries of New York, and can be readily found in the regions of the Southwest.
But after working his way out of the James Weldon Johnson Project in East Harlem, New York, Emir decided the best place to open that store was right in the neighborhood he had come from.
Emanuel Scott, 43, from Harlem, New York City, was one of those taking in the scene at the Capitol Monday night.