Harlem

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Harlem,

residential and business section of upper Manhattan, New York City, bounded roughly by 110th St., the East River and Harlem River, 168th St., Amsterdam Ave., and Morningside Park. The Dutch settlement of Nieuw Haarlem was established by Peter Stuyvesant in 1658. To the W of Harlem, near the present site of Columbia Univ., British and Continental forces fought (Sept. 16, 1776) the Battle of Harlem Heights. Harlem remained rural until the 19th cent. when improved transportation facilities linked it with lower Manhattan. It then became a fashionable residential section of New York City. By the turn of the century Harlem had a large Jewish population; starting around 1910 Harlem became the scene of increasing African-American migration from the South. It soon became the largest and most influential African-American community in the nation, one of the centers of innovation in jazz, and the home of such Harlem Renaissance authors as Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, and Zora Neale Hurston. In East Harlem, a largely Italian neighborhood—the home of Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia—many Puerto Ricans and other Hispanic-Americans settled after World War II. Seventh Ave. at 125th Street is generally considered the heart of Harlem; Lenox Ave., once internationally known for its entertainment spots, is now mainly lined with housing developments. Harlem is the site of the Abyssinian Baptist Church, headed for many years by Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., and the Apollo theater, noted for performances by African-American musicians and entertainers. An extensive scholarly collection is housed at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture (part of the New York Public Library), which is adjacent to the Countee Cullen branch of the Library. Harlem today is a depressed economic area with considerable unemployment; much of its housing is substandard. There has been some gentrification and a return of middle-class blacks to the neighborhood.

Bibliography

See G. Osofsky, Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto (1966); J. S. Gurock, When Harlem Was Jewish (1979); C. L. Greenberg, Or Does It Explode: Black Harlem in the Thirties (1991); S. Rhodes-Pitts, Harlem Is Nowhere (2011); C. J. Bergara, Harlem: The Unmaking of a Ghetto (2013).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Harlem

 

a section of New York City (USA) populated mainly by Negroes (the Negro or black ghetto) and located in the northeastern part of the island of Manhattan. Originally, Harlem was a village founded by the Dutch in 1636, who brought the first shipment of Negro slaves there. In 1731 it was incorporated into New York. The rise of black ghettos such as Harlem was associated with a policy of racial segregation and discrimination. Harlem is characterized by over-crowdedness, higher apartment rents, lack of elementary sanitary conditions, an acute shortage of hospitals and schools, and the extreme poverty and high mortality rate of the inhabitants. Harlem is one of the centers of the Negro movement in the USA. The largest manifestations of the movement occurred in the autumn of 1959 in protest against segregation in education, in the summer of 1964, after a policeman murdered a Negro teen-ager, and in the spring of 1968 in connection with the assassination of the leader of the Negro movement, M. L. King.

V. A. TISHKOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Harlem

a district of New York City, in NE Manhattan: now largely a Black ghetto
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
long suffering patience of those Harlemites who never read
According to the New York Daily News, the new time-bartering system has been created by two Harlemites, and will be called Time Republik, which will combine technology with the erstwhile idea of skill swapping.
As the Amsterdam News succinctly but profoundly put it, "Harlemites turned out to see their President.
By the same token, while economic inequality provokes irritation, the Harlemites representing varieties of frequently feminized, predacious lawlessness--Goldy and Imabelle in A Rage in Harlem, the "hophead" hit men in The Hears On, Chink Charlie Dawson in The Crazy Kill, Deke O'Malley in Cotton Comes to Harlem--trigger in Coffin Ed and Grave Digger another ugly feeling, disgust, by which they articulate a distinction between their own jobs, and the work performed by the objects of their disgust.
Would-be moments of choran community become acts of manipulation and exploitation as Helga's Danish relatives trot her out as an exotic specimen, as sophisticated Harlemites fault her for being insufficiently race-conscious, and as her husband and female neighbors in the deep South accept her only when she succumbs to a string of physically and emotionally debilitating births.
While the FWP helped sharpen debates about the relationship among African Americans, Harlem, and the national community, New Deal programs and the approaching world war raised a number of questions: Would the New Deal be able to effect substantial and beneficial changes in the lives of ordinary Harlemites, or would the neighborhood slip further into a state of physical decay and social unrest?
In the wake of the 1935 Harlem riot, it was estimated that ninety-five percent of Harlemites took public transportation to and from work each day, and public transportation was just as heavily used in Chicago.
The athletics facility, nicknamed "Gym Crow" by Harlemites, became a rallying point for three groups: white student radicals, many of whom were affiliated with Students for a Democratic Society (SDS); the Student Afro-American Society (SAS), a group of black Columbia students influenced by the emerging Black Power movement; and black residents of Harlem.
Over 70 percent of Harlemites were still shopping outside of the village and were apparently unaware of the new stores that had emerged during Harlem's revitalization.
Thus began a full-scale riot in which several thousand Harlemites participated, an event that before long would symbolize the acute suffering and resentment of the country's most storied African-American community.
So it is unsurprising that "change" is definitely a byword for Harlemites' expectations of the man they feel has gone past their most wildly-dreamed-of aspirations in such record time.
Carter, a Yale law professor, mixes well-to-do Harlemites, the history of the latter half of the 20th century, and a deadly conspiracy into his third novel.