"You can do pretty well by following your nose," says mathematical biologist Andy Reynolds, who did the new work at the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council's Rothamsted Research institute in Harpenden, England
. "There's no need to know where all of the other sites are or to have the means to figure out which one is the nearest one."
Pickett from the Institute for Arable Crops Research in Harpenden, England
, made some new discoveries.
Radar showed that silver Y moths heading south for winter selected winds sweeping them in the right general direction, says Jason Chapman of Rothamsted Research in Harpenden, England
. Moths even seemed to adjust their flight direction to compensate for somewhat off-course winds, he and his colleagues report in the April 8 Current Biology.
Then, a team that's now at Rothamsted Research in Harpenden, England
, built a larger, more powerful system that tracked an insect with true radar, which reveals both direction and distance.
Fraaije of Rothamsted Research in Harpenden, England
, and his colleagues tested a library of wheat samples grown on a British farm and archived for most years since 1843.
Awmack, an ecologist from the IACR-Rothamsted agricultural research center in Harpenden, England
. Aphids reproduce 10 to 15 percent faster under conditions of elevated [CO.sub.2], Awmack has found.