Harriet Beecher Stowe

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Stowe, Harriet Beecher,

1811–96, American novelist and humanitarian, b. Litchfield, Conn. With her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, she stirred the conscience of Americans concerning slavery and thereby influenced the course of American history. The daughter of Lyman BeecherBeecher, Lyman,
1775–1863, American Presbyterian clergyman, b. New Haven, Conn., grad. Yale, 1797. In 1799 he became pastor at East Hampton, N.Y. While serving (1810–26) in the Congregational Church at Litchfield, Conn.
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, pastor of the Congregational Church in Litchfield, and the sister of Henry Ward BeecherBeecher, Henry Ward,
1813–87, American Congregational preacher, orator, and lecturer, b. Litchfield, Conn.; son of Lyman Beecher and brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe. He graduated from Amherst in 1834 and attended Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati.
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, Harriet grew up in an atmosphere of New England Congregational piety and, like all the Beechers, early developed an interest in theology and in schemes for improving humanity. In 1824 she went to Hartford, at first to study, later to teach in her sister Catherine's school. When her father became head of Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, she moved to that city with him and there began teaching again and writing. In 1836 she married Professor Calvin Ellis Stowe.

Cincinnati, a border city, was at the time torn with abolitionist conflicts. Harriet's brothers were violently opposed to slavery, and she had seen its effects in Kentucky and had aided a runaway slave. However, it was not until the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act (1850) that she was moved to write on the subject. Uncle Tom's Cabin, first published serially (1851–52) in the abolitionist paper National Era, was not intended as abolitionist propaganda nor was it directed against the South, but slaveholders condemned the book as unfair, and it also crystallized the sentiments of the North. In one year more than 300,000 copies were sold in the United States and over a million in Britain. In addition, its dramatization by G. L. Aiken had a long run. The book was translated into many foreign languages, and when Stowe visited Europe in 1853 numerous honors were bestowed on her.

Her second novel of slavery, Dred (1856), while better constructed and more accurate, failed to recapture the warm characterization of the first. During the 1850s she worked vigorously for the antislavery effort, although she never allied herself with the abolitionists, whom she considered extremists. The mother of six children, she was constantly harassed by financial worries, for despite the great popularity of her books her earnings were never large, and she and her husband were unbusinesslike and overly generous. Interested in other reform movements, such as temperance and woman suffrage, she also wrote religious poems and articles for religious magazines and housekeeping manuals. Her works are generally given to sermonizing, but in The Minister's Wooing (1859) and Old Town Folks (1869) she captures the New England of her childhood.

At her best, Stowe combined literary realism with evangelical fervor. A prolific writer whose works fill 16 volumes, she was chiefly popular because she so aptly expressed the sentiments of the 19th-century middle class. Her works reflect the great issues and events of her century: slavery, women's position in society, the decline of Calvinism, the rise of industry and consumerism, and the birth of a great national literature.

Bibliography

See her life and letters, ed. by A. Fields (1897, repr. 1970); biographies by C. E. Stowe, her son (1889, repr. 1967), R. F. Wilson (1941, repr. 1970), and J. D. Hedrick (1994); studies by J. R. Adams (1963, rev. ed. 1989), M. Reynolds (1985), and D. S. Reynolds (2011).

Stowe, Harriet Beecher

 

Born June 14, 1811, in Litchfield, Conn.; died July 1, 1896, in Florida. American Writer.

Stowe was the daughter of a minister and the wife of a professor of theology. In the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin(1852), which became world-famous, she was the first to show the inhumanity of slavery in America. Although Stowe did not go beyond the idea of the reconciliation of the slaves with the slaveholders, her work played a prominent role in the ideological preparation for the abolition of slavery in the USA. In the book A Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1853), Stowe published documents about the cruelty of slaveholders. In the novel Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp (1856), which showed the impossibility of resolving the problem of Negro slavery through reform, Stowe also anticipated a revolutionary resolution of this question.

In Russia revolutionary democratic circles used Stowe’s novel in the struggle against serfdom. (In 1858 the editors of the journal Sovremennik distributed a Russian translation of the novel to readers as an appendix to the journal.) Under Soviet power Uncle Tom’s Cabin has been reprinted 59 times in 21 languages of the peoples of the USSR. The novel has a general circulation of more than 2 million copies.

WORKS

The Writings, vols. 1–16. Cambridge, 1896.
In Russian translation:
Khizhina diadi Toma. Moscow, 1961.

REFERENCES

Istoriia amerikanskoi literatury, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1947. Sysoeva, E. A. Zhizn’ Garriet Bicher-Stou, 2nd ed. St. Petersburg, 1900.
Boreham, F. W. The Gospel of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. London, 1956. Adams, J. R. Harriet Beecher Stowe. New York, 1963. (Bibliography, pp. 143–67.)

Stowe, Harriet Beecher

(1811–1896) author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, influential Abolitionist novel. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 481]

Stowe, Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher

(1811–96) writer; born in Litchfield, Conn. (daughter of Lyman Beecher). Raised by her severe Calvinist father, she was educated and taught at the Hartford Female Seminary (founded by her sister Catherine Beecher). Moving to Cincinnati with her father in 1832, she began to write sketches and short fiction; she married in 1836 but persevered in her writing while raising seven children. In 1850 her husband took up a post as professor of religion at Bowdoin College, Maine, and there she began work on Uncle Tom's Cabin. It appeared in weekly installments in the National Era (1851–52) and was published as a two-volume novel in 1852; it became an instant and controversial best-seller, both in the U.S.A. and abroad. She made three trips to Europe during the 1850s where she was befriended by major literary figures. The novel had a major impact on Northerners' attitudes toward slavery and by the beginning of the Civil War had sold more than a million copies. She followed this spectacular success with numerous works of fiction, biography, children's books, travelogues, theological works, temperance tracts, and practical works on housekeeping (including coauthoring with sister Catherine, The American Woman's Home, 1869), but nothing she wrote ever approached the success of her first novel.
References in periodicals archive ?
Harriet Beecher Stowe and the Question of Race" in Critical Essays on Harriet Beecher Stowe.
Chapter 4 moves to the United States, pairing Lydia Maria Child's Hobomok with Harriet Jacobs's Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl and Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin with William Wells Brown's novel Clotel.
In Domestic Abolitionism and Juvenile Literature, meanwhile, she reads the work of relatively established writers, such as Harriet Beecher Stowe, in context with works by relatively unknown writers printed in religious and domestic publications, which both exposes many practitioners of an overlooked genre and establishes a historical background for her project.
Genealogy with a reproduction of Harriet Beecher Stowe's genealogy.
Explore the city's rich history with an array of cultural heritage attractions, including homes of literary legends Mark Twain and Harriet Beecher Stowe, and impressive collections at the nation's oldest public art museum, Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art.
Perhaps the most inspiring view of what our flag stands for was given in an 1861 address by Henry Ward Beecher (brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe), described as ``the most respected and idealized religious figure of the day'' and ``America's leading moral and spiritual teacher'':
As for judging works by theoretical standards of any particular era, that has produced such absurdities as Thomas Rymer's censure of Shakespeare for having Othello become jealous merely of his wife's purloined handkerchief and not her garter, and Tolstoy's judgment that Harriet Beecher Stowe's anti-slavery fiction ought to give her literary merit over Shakespeare.
A striking expression of that challenge is The Minister's Wooing (1859) by Harriet Beecher Stowe.
Second, it considers the spectacle of Webb's reading--including the ways in which Webb's public reading of Harriet Beecher Stowe's work breaks significantly with Stowe's relative silence on her first British tour.
Each of the book's six chapters is concentrated principally upon one text, the first of which is necessarily Uncle Tom's Cabin by `the little woman who made this great war', as Lincoln is reputed to have hailed her on meeting, `the little woman' being of course `Manhood' Beecher's sister, Harriet Beecher Stowe.
Chapter 5, "Ladies of Maine," moves to the New World, examining Harriet Beecher Stowe's Pearl of Orr's Island (1862), Sarah Orne Jewett's Marsh Island (1885) and Country of Pointed Firs (1896), Willa Gather's O Pioneers
Spiritualism was an enormous trend in the 19th century in Britain and the United States, practiced by figures as diverse as Mary Todd Lincoln, Arthur Conan Doyle, and Harriet Beecher Stowe.