Harriet Beecher Stowe

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Stowe, Harriet Beecher,

1811–96, American novelist and humanitarian, b. Litchfield, Conn. With her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, she stirred the conscience of Americans concerning slavery and thereby influenced the course of American history. The daughter of Lyman BeecherBeecher, Lyman,
1775–1863, American Presbyterian clergyman, b. New Haven, Conn., grad. Yale, 1797. In 1799 he became pastor at East Hampton, N.Y. While serving (1810–26) in the Congregational Church at Litchfield, Conn.
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, pastor of the Congregational Church in Litchfield, and the sister of Henry Ward BeecherBeecher, Henry Ward,
1813–87, American Congregational preacher, orator, and lecturer, b. Litchfield, Conn.; son of Lyman Beecher and brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe. He graduated from Amherst in 1834 and attended Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati.
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, Harriet grew up in an atmosphere of New England Congregational piety and, like all the Beechers, early developed an interest in theology and in schemes for improving humanity. In 1824 she went to Hartford, at first to study, later to teach in her sister Catherine's school. When her father became head of Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, she moved to that city with him and there began teaching again and writing. In 1836 she married Professor Calvin Ellis Stowe.

Cincinnati, a border city, was at the time torn with abolitionist conflicts. Harriet's brothers were violently opposed to slavery, and she had seen its effects in Kentucky and had aided a runaway slave. However, it was not until the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act (1850) that she was moved to write on the subject. Uncle Tom's Cabin, first published serially (1851–52) in the abolitionist paper National Era, was not intended as abolitionist propaganda nor was it directed against the South, but slaveholders condemned the book as unfair, and it also crystallized the sentiments of the North. In one year more than 300,000 copies were sold in the United States and over a million in Britain. In addition, its dramatization by G. L. Aiken had a long run. The book was translated into many foreign languages, and when Stowe visited Europe in 1853 numerous honors were bestowed on her.

Her second novel of slavery, Dred (1856), while better constructed and more accurate, failed to recapture the warm characterization of the first. During the 1850s she worked vigorously for the antislavery effort, although she never allied herself with the abolitionists, whom she considered extremists. The mother of six children, she was constantly harassed by financial worries, for despite the great popularity of her books her earnings were never large, and she and her husband were unbusinesslike and overly generous. Interested in other reform movements, such as temperance and woman suffrage, she also wrote religious poems and articles for religious magazines and housekeeping manuals. Her works are generally given to sermonizing, but in The Minister's Wooing (1859) and Old Town Folks (1869) she captures the New England of her childhood.

At her best, Stowe combined literary realism with evangelical fervor. A prolific writer whose works fill 16 volumes, she was chiefly popular because she so aptly expressed the sentiments of the 19th-century middle class. Her works reflect the great issues and events of her century: slavery, women's position in society, the decline of Calvinism, the rise of industry and consumerism, and the birth of a great national literature.


See her life and letters, ed. by A. Fields (1897, repr. 1970); biographies by C. E. Stowe, her son (1889, repr. 1967), R. F. Wilson (1941, repr. 1970), and J. D. Hedrick (1994); studies by J. R. Adams (1963, rev. ed. 1989), M. Reynolds (1985), and D. S. Reynolds (2011).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Stowe, Harriet Beecher


Born June 14, 1811, in Litchfield, Conn.; died July 1, 1896, in Florida. American Writer.

Stowe was the daughter of a minister and the wife of a professor of theology. In the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin(1852), which became world-famous, she was the first to show the inhumanity of slavery in America. Although Stowe did not go beyond the idea of the reconciliation of the slaves with the slaveholders, her work played a prominent role in the ideological preparation for the abolition of slavery in the USA. In the book A Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1853), Stowe published documents about the cruelty of slaveholders. In the novel Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp (1856), which showed the impossibility of resolving the problem of Negro slavery through reform, Stowe also anticipated a revolutionary resolution of this question.

In Russia revolutionary democratic circles used Stowe’s novel in the struggle against serfdom. (In 1858 the editors of the journal Sovremennik distributed a Russian translation of the novel to readers as an appendix to the journal.) Under Soviet power Uncle Tom’s Cabin has been reprinted 59 times in 21 languages of the peoples of the USSR. The novel has a general circulation of more than 2 million copies.


The Writings, vols. 1–16. Cambridge, 1896.
In Russian translation:
Khizhina diadi Toma. Moscow, 1961.


Istoriia amerikanskoi literatury, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1947. Sysoeva, E. A. Zhizn’ Garriet Bicher-Stou, 2nd ed. St. Petersburg, 1900.
Boreham, F. W. The Gospel of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. London, 1956. Adams, J. R. Harriet Beecher Stowe. New York, 1963. (Bibliography, pp. 143–67.)
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Stowe, Harriet Beecher

(1811–1896) author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, influential Abolitionist novel. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 481]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Stowe, Harriet (Elizabeth) Beecher

(1811–96) writer; born in Litchfield, Conn. (daughter of Lyman Beecher). Raised by her severe Calvinist father, she was educated and taught at the Hartford Female Seminary (founded by her sister Catherine Beecher). Moving to Cincinnati with her father in 1832, she began to write sketches and short fiction; she married in 1836 but persevered in her writing while raising seven children. In 1850 her husband took up a post as professor of religion at Bowdoin College, Maine, and there she began work on Uncle Tom's Cabin. It appeared in weekly installments in the National Era (1851–52) and was published as a two-volume novel in 1852; it became an instant and controversial best-seller, both in the U.S.A. and abroad. She made three trips to Europe during the 1850s where she was befriended by major literary figures. The novel had a major impact on Northerners' attitudes toward slavery and by the beginning of the Civil War had sold more than a million copies. She followed this spectacular success with numerous works of fiction, biography, children's books, travelogues, theological works, temperance tracts, and practical works on housekeeping (including coauthoring with sister Catherine, The American Woman's Home, 1869), but nothing she wrote ever approached the success of her first novel.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Harriet Beecher Stowe and the Domestication of Free Labor Ideology" Legacy: A Journal of American Women Writers, vol.
"you must consider it's not a matter of private feeling"--Senator Bird in Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin (Boston: John P.
"Harriet Beecher Stowe and the Question of Race" in Critical Essays on Harriet Beecher Stowe.
Such is the case with Henry Louis Gates's annotated edition of Harriet Beecher Stowe's time-worn and time-honored Uncle Tom's Cabin, initially published in 1852 and, if we take President Abraham Lincoln seriously, one of the things that propelled the United States into the Civil War.
This production contains a brilliant analysis and interpretation of a number of writers, including Edgar Allan Poe, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Mark Twain, Herman Melville and others.
UNCLE TOM'S CABIN Harriet Beecher Stowe Penguin Classics (Originally published in 1852, Jewett, Proctor, and Worthington)
Written by Monika Mueller (teaches American and English literature at the University of Cologne, Germany), George Elliot U.S.: Transatlantic Literary and Cultural Perspectives is an extensive work of literary criticism and analysis that explores the complicated and reciprocal relationship between George Elliot's fiction and the writings of her American contemporaries, including Nathaniel Hawthorne, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Margaret Fuller, and Ralph Waldo Emerson.
Adaptation of the famous novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe, also starring Phylicia Rashad, Bruce Dern, Edward Woodward and George Coe.
"Common sense is the knack of seeing things as they are, and doing things as they ought to be done." Certainly, this maxim of Harriet Beecher Stowe will keep one on the right path most of the time.
He then notes that certain books, such as Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, have an immediate effect on the culture that produced them, while others, such as Henry David Thoreau's Civil Disobedience, are not recognized for their virtues until the passing of generations.
In Daniel Deronda (her last published novel), Evans took on a very serious subject--"the thoughtless but insidious anti-Semitism she had observed" In a letter to American Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1876, she expressed her anger over the way English upper classes talked about the Jewish people in her country: "Can anything be more disgusting than to hear people called 'educated' making small jokes about ...
Northerners such as Dorothea Dix, the crusader for the reform of mental institutions and later superintendent of female nurses for the Union during the war; Harriet Beecher Stowe, the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin, whom President Lincoln called "the woman that wrote the book that caused this war"; Harriet Tubman, a runaway slave who helped operate the "underground railroad"; and many others enjoy excellent sidebar treatment too.