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Cultivation of the soil with a harrow.



a method for shallow cultivation of soil and care of agricultural crops. It is accomplished by toothed or disk harrows and revolving hoes. Harrowing protects the soil from rapid drying and improves its air and water penetrability, which facilitates the intensification of beneficial microbiological processes and accumulation in the soil of nutritive substances absorbed by the plants. For these reasons, fall-plowed fields, bare fallow, and winter crops are harrowed in early spring. Harrowing before the sowing of spring crops is done to level the surface of the field. Harrowing after sowing is used to destroy weed sprouts and to break up the soil crust before the appearance of shoots and around the shoots. (Revolving hoes or latticed harrows are best used for this purpose.)

On fallow fields and in preparing the soil under cultivation for winter crops, harrowing is used to level the surface of the field and to preserve moisture in the soil. Plowing and cultivation are usually conducted simultaneously with harrowing. In regions with little snow (for example, in Eastern Siberia), where the ridged surface of the field plowed for fall crops intensifies drying of the soil, autumn harrowing is practiced.

The quality of harrowing depends on the moisture of the cultivated layer of soil and on the equipment and technique of performance. Good crumbling is provided for by physical readiness of the soil (when it contains 60–70 percent of its total water capacity). Harrowing overdried or overmoist soil may be harmful. An increase in the speed of cultivation provides better friability but increases pulverization of the soil. Harrowing across the plowing or diagonally to it provides better friability and leveling of the surface. Indicators of high-quality harrowing are a well-crumbled surface layer of soil and a low degree of pulverization, a level field surface, and a maximum number of destroyed weed sprouts.


Obshchee zemledelie. Edited by S. A. Vorob’ev and D. I. Burov. Moscow, 1964. Pages 188–89.
Korolev, A. V., S. K. Navrotskii, and M. P. Fedoseeva. Obshchee zemledelie s melioratsiei. Leningrad, 1967. Pages 144–46.


References in classic literature ?
Yes, dear, and I must tell you that it was not his frightful threats when setting me free that helped me to keep my word, but the harrowing sob which he gave on the threshold of the tomb.
He was simply regarding the harrowing contingencies of human experience, the unexpectedness of things.
No one dreams of reading this kind of thing now--antiquated problem plays, harrowing descriptions of life in the east end--oh, no, we've exploded all that.
It was a trembling and ashen-hued Usanga who tumbled out of the fuselage, for his nerves were still on edge as a result of the harrowing experience of the loop, yet with terra firma once more under foot, he quickly regained his composure.
If there was any plan that would render his position more harrowing he should have known that such would be the one adopted by the Russian, and what could be more terrible than to leave him to a lifetime of suspense upon an uninhabited island?
Expecting momentarily to be dashed to destruction he presently found himself deposited gently upon the soft, ochre moss of a dead sea-bottom, bodily no worse off for his harrowing adventure than in the possession of a slight swelling upon his forehead where the metal hook had struck him.
I wanted myself to die, and yet I clung to life--useless and hopeless and harrowing a thing as it had become.
It was best, I thought, that I go thus without the harrowing pangs of a last farewell.
Ruby Gillis wrote a gushing epistle deploring Anne's absence, assuring her she was horribly missed in everything, asking what the Redmond "fellows" were like, and filling the rest with accounts of her own harrowing experiences with her numerous admirers.
Perfectly unimpressed by this harrowing narrative, Francine turned her head lazily toward the house.
It was a harrowing experience, but soon over, and once again the captive was being carried swiftly toward the east and what fate he could not even guess.
The audience was just enthusiastic enough over it to have her return and sing a sorrowful lay, whose lines told of a mother's love and a sweetheart who waited and a young man who was lost at sea under the most harrowing circumstances.