Hasmoneans


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Hasmoneans:

see MaccabeesMaccabees
or Machabees
, Jewish family of the 2d and 1st cent. B.C. that brought about a restoration of Jewish political and religious life. They are also called Hasmoneans or Asmoneans after their ancestor, Hashmon.
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Hasmoneans

 

(also Maccabees), a priestly family; leaders and rulers of Judea (167–37 B.C.)

In 167 the Hasmoneans led a national liberation struggle against the burdensome taxes and the political and religious oppression of the Seleucids. After Mattathias, the founder of the family, died in 166, the armed struggle was led in turn by his sons Judas Maccabeus, Jonathan, and Simon. Under the leadership of Judas, religious persecution was ended, and religious autonomy was restored in 162. After Judas’ death in 161, Judea was granted a major reduction in taxes during the rule of Jonathan, who became high priest in 152. Under Simon, who was high priest from 142 to 134, Judea achieved complete political independence in 142. In 140 the national assembly named Simon hereditary high priest, ethnarch, and military commander.

Subsequent Hasmoneans, supported by the Sadducees, waged wars of conquest; under their rule Judea came to resemble a Hellenistic monarchy, and Aristobulus I (104–103) took the title of king. In the early first century, during the reign of Alexander Jan-naeus (103–76), Judea’s boundaries reached their greatest extent. The enormous burdens placed on the shoulders of the people led to mass uprisings between 90 and 84 instigated by the Pharisees; the rebellions were cruelly suppressed by Jannaeus. Jannaeus’ widow, Queen Salome Alexandra (76–67), made peace with the Pharisees and brought them into the government. Her death was followed by a civil war that ended with the intervention of Rome and the conquest of Judea in 63 by Pompey. The last Hasmone-an, Antigonus (40–37), was deposed and executed by Herod the Great, who established his own dynasty under Roman protection.

REFERENCES

Bickermann, E. Der Gott der Makkabäer: Untersuchungen über Sinn und Ursprung der makkabäischen Ergebung. Berlin, 1937.
Bickermann, E. From Ezra to the Last of the Maccabees. New York, 1962.
Stern, M. The Documents of the History of the Hasmonaean Revolt. Tel Aviv, 1965.
References in periodicals archive ?
Jewish historians have hotly debated the achievements and the disorders of the Hasmonean state, and its reputation in the religious world is even more sour as, in contravention of Jewish law, later rules of the Maccabean line, they usurped the priesthood as well as the monarchy, abrogating the legitimate Aharonic and Davidic lineages, respectively.
Adam Marshak approaches the challenge by examining the multiple images of himself that Herod presented to the world, focusing in particular upon four roles: Herod as rightful successor to the Hasmonean rulers of Judaea; as Hellenistic ruler among the successors of Alexander; as Roman client-king; and as King of the Jews in a wider sense, including the Diaspora.
For instance, in chapter 4 Cohen shows that Jewish identity in the Hasmonean period shifted from ethnic identity to religious, cultural, and/or political identity: "But by investing Judaean identity with political or cultural (religious) content, the Hasmonaeans were able to give outsiders an opportunity to attain membership in Judaean society." (37) Taking this a step further, Cohen undertakes the redefinition of Jewishness, modifying it from an ethnic to an ethnoreligious identity.
For Jews of the day, Rome rode hard on the "resource." Already in the century before, elite Hasmonean designs on Galilee's fertile produce had the Jerusalem theocrats "gentrifying" the mestizo hinterland, re-orienting village economics toward city service, pulling the fierce northern peasantry into the ideological orbit of Jerusalem, and mandating tithing to support Temple-State agendas and priestly lifestyles.
One of the outstanding aspects of this story that speaks to me is that despite knowing that the Temple and everything in it had been defiled, the Hasmoneans refused to despair and carried on looking for that elusive cruse of pure oil.
One of the outstanding aspects of this story that speaks to me is that, despite knowing that the temple and everything in it had been defiled, the Hasmoneans refused to despair and carried on looking for that elusive cruse of pure oil.
One of the outstanding aspects of this story that speaks to me is that despite knowing that the Temple and everything in it had been defiled the Hasmoneans refused to despair and carried on looking for that elusive cruse of pure oil.
1989 The Hasmonean Revolt: Rebellion or Revolution, Ancient Near Eastern Texts and Studies, Vol.
Grabbe reviewing the different sources of leadership during the Second temple period--from the times of Yehud as a Persian province, passing through the Seleucids, the Ptolemy, the Maccabean, the Hasmoneans, to the Apocrypha, Josephus to final Christian sources--shows clearly the existence of a continuous group-institution.
It records the exploits of the Maccabean family (later called Hasmoneans) in their revolt against Antiochus IV Epiphanes and his aggressive campaign to Hellenize (24) the land of Israel.
Israel and Jerusalem, especially under the Hasmoneans, became, and then with the Herodian government began to look like, a typical Hellenistic place--gyrnanisia, hippodromes, pagan temples, swimming baths, theatres, and other royal and public buildings.
but it was probably known in ancient israel during the Hellenistic period, which was also the age of the Hasmoneans ...