Hasidim

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Hasidim

or

Chassidim

(both: häsē`dĭm, khä–) [Heb.,=the pious], term used by the rabbis to describe those Jews who maintained the highest standard of religious observance and moral action. The term has been applied to movements at three distinct times. The first Hasidim, also called the Assideans or Hasideans, were an ancient Jewish sect that developed between 300 B.C. and 175 B.C. They were the most rigid adherents of Judaism in contradistinction to those Jews who were beginning to be affected by Hellenistic influences. The Hasidim led the resistance to the hellenizing campaign of Antiochus IV of Syria, and they figured largely in the early phases of the revolt of the MaccabeesMaccabees
or Machabees
, Jewish family of the 2d and 1st cent. B.C. that brought about a restoration of Jewish political and religious life. They are also called Hasmoneans or Asmoneans after their ancestor, Hashmon.
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. Their ritual strictness has caused some to see them as forerunners of the Pharisees. Throughout the Talmudic period numerous figures were referred to as Hasidim. During the 12th and 13th cent., however, there arose in Germany a specific group known as the Hasidei Ashkenaz. Influenced by Saadia ben Joseph and with messianic and mystical elements, it held as its central ideology the unity of God, the application of justice in all situations, social and economic equality, and martyrdom at the hands of the crusaders rather than compromise of any kind. The chief ethical work that derived from the group was the Sefer Hasidim (tr. Book of the Pious, 1973). The third movement to which the term Hasidim is applied is that founded in the 18th cent. by Baal-Shem-Tov and known as HasidismHasidism
or Chassidism
[Heb.,=the pious], Jewish religious movement founded in Poland in the 18th cent. by Baal-Shem-Tov. Its name derives from Hasidim. Hasidism, which stressed the mercy of God and encouraged joyous religious expression through music and dance, spread
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.

Bibliography

See S. Lieberman, Hellenism in Jewish Palestine (1962); S. G. Kramer, God and Man in the Sefer Hasidim (1966); A. L. Lowenkopf, The Hasidim (1973). See also bibliography under HasidismHasidism
or Chassidism
[Heb.,=the pious], Jewish religious movement founded in Poland in the 18th cent. by Baal-Shem-Tov. Its name derives from Hasidim. Hasidism, which stressed the mercy of God and encouraged joyous religious expression through music and dance, spread
..... Click the link for more information.
.

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References in periodicals archive ?
Hassidim and the 'Reasonable Accommodation' Debate in Quebec." Journal of Jewish Sociology 50, no.
RABBI MENAHEM MENDEL of Kotzk (1787-1859) was one of the most remarkable figures of Hassidim, the populist Jewish mystical movement.
More recently in the United States, some publications (albeit not necessarily academic in focus) have drawn attention to the interactions between the Hassidim and other communities (sometimes other Jewish communities, such as S.G.
It is known that Schulz wrote a third book, Messiah (apparently about the Hassidim in eighteenth-century Poland).
Buber seeks a source for Jewish renewal in the language and culture of the Hassidim, while Lasker-Schuler sees it in the spirit of art, the "Wildjude" (wild Jew)--as opposed to the unintellectual Jew who has internalized the values of rationalism and materialism.
Shmuel Safrai has considered Tanna Devei Eliyahu a work coming from the circle of the Hassidim, providing him (31) with a Jewish context in light of which to appreciate the teaching of Jesus.
In the crematoria, the ashes of Hassidim and Anshei Maseh (pious Jews) were mixed with the ashes of radicals and freethinkers and we must fight against the enemy who does not recognize the difference between one who worships and one who does not ...
The Hassidim identify three creative powers for each letter of the alphabet: energy, life and light.
Another fast growing Orthodox movement with distinguished folk religious practices is that of the Bratslav Hassidim, who worship the memory of the late Rabbi Nahman who lived in the eighteenth century.
There were two opposing extremes (which could be called orthodox and reform tendencies), the pious Hassidim and the hellenized Jews, the latter being open to the Greek culture of the ruling Syrians.