Hastings Kamuzu Banda


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Banda, Hastings Kamuzu

(kämo͞o`zo͞o bän`də), 1902?–97, African political leader, president of Malawi (1966–94). A son of peasants, he received a medical degree in the United States and after World War II established a practice in London, where his office became a meeting place for exiled African leaders. He returned to Africa (1953), then to his homeland, Nyasaland (1958), to campaign against the federation of Nyasaland with Rhodesia (now ZimbabweZimbabwe
, formerly Rhodesia,
officially Republic of Zimbabwe, republic (2005 est. pop. 12,747,000), 150,803 sq mi (390,580 sq km), S central Africa. It is bordered on the north by Zambia, on the northeast and east by Mozambique, on the south by South Africa, and on
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 and ZambiaZambia
, officially Republic of Zambia, republic (2005 est. pop. 11,262,000), 290,584 sq mi (752,614 sq km), central Africa. It borders on Congo (Kinshasa) in the north, on Tanzania in the northeast, on Malawi and Mozambique in the east, on Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Namibia in the
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). In 1961 Banda's Malawi Congress party won a sweeping election victory. Nyasaland, which he led as prime minister, became independent as MalawiMalawi
, officially Republic of Malawi, republic (2005 est. pop. 12,159,000), 45,200 sq mi (117,068 sq km), E central Africa. It borders on Zambia in the west, on Tanzania in the north, and on Mozambique in the east, south, and southwest.
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 in 1964. Under a new constitution, Banda became president in 1966. Increasingly autocratic, he made himself president for life in 1971, the year he became the first African leader to visit South Africa. Opponents were routinely jailed and some killed, while Banda lived in luxury. Following antigovernment rioting and suspension of Western aid in 1992, Banda was forced to abandon one-party rule and the life presidency in 1993. In democratic elections held in 1994, he was defeated by Bakili Muluzi. In 1995 Banda was acquitted of charges in the 1983 assassination of four political opponents.

Bibliography

See biographies by P. Short (1974) and T. D. Williams (1978).

References in periodicals archive ?
Hastings Kamuzu Banda, who led Malawi (formerly Nyasaland) to independence, and who in 1970 became Life President, was eventually forced to stand down in 1993, four years before his death.
Among notable developments which have accompanied the democratization process in Malawi during the past five years has been a review of the factors which led to these transformations in a country which for thirty years had been absolutely dominated by Dr Hastings Kamuzu Banda and his Malawi Congress Party.
After gaining its independence from British colonial governance in 1966, it was ruled for almost 30 years by Hastings Kamuzu Banda, an American- and British-educated medical doctor, who guided a one-party state as its "Life President.
Dr Hastings Kamuzu Banda, former president of Malawi, 99
Hastings Kamuzu Banda, proved himself one of the most repressive and autocratic leaders in the post-independence era, the government had little difficulty switching to a multiparty system after Western aid donors applied the pressure of withholding assistance.
Hastings Kamuzu Banda, who led the country to independence in 1964 and presided over it until 1994, was the last of Africa's great nationalist leaders.
As French writes in his book, the political bloodline ran through Mobutu, Idi Amin, Hastings Kamuzu Banda of Malawi, Samuel Doe and "the Angolan terrorist-cum-anti-communist guerrilla leader Jonas Savimbi, whom Reagan once toasted as Africa's Abraham Lincoln".
Muluzi originally became president in the country's first democratic election, which took place after three decades of dictatorship under President Hastings Kamuzu Banda.
42) Malawi was led to independence by Dr Hastings Kamuzu Banda, who is believed to have been born in 1898.
President Muluzi and his United Democratic Front (UDF) party came to power in 1994 after the country's first multi-party general elections, which ousted the late dictator Dr Hastings Kamuzu Banda.
The President of the MCP and effective leader of the African elected members of the Nyasaland Legislative Assembly, Dr Hastings Kamuzu Banda, and Governor Glyn-Jones sent representatives.
Many politicians opposing the dictatorial rule of Dr Hastings Kamuzu Banda founded newspapers in the run up to the country's first free elections in May 1994.

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