Hatra


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Hatra

(hă`trə), Arab. Al Hadr, ancient city and fortress, in modern-day Iraq, 68 mi (110 km) SW of Mosul. It flourished from the 1st cent. B.C. to the 2nd cent. A.D. under the Parthian Empire (see ParthiaParthia
, ancient country of Asia, SE of the Caspian Sea. In its narrowest limits it consisted of a mountainous region intersected with fertile valleys, lying S of Hyrcania and corresponding roughly to the modern Iranian province of Khorasan.
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), when it was a fortified religious and trading center. The city is noted for its many temples, dedicated to dieties of several ancient religious traditions; the largest is the Great Temple. Hatra resisted several Roman attempts to conquer it, but fell in A.D. 241 to Shapur IShapur I
or Sapor I
, d.272, king of Persia (241–72), son and successor of Ardashir I, of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty. He was an able warrior king.
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, Sassanid king of Persia, and was destroyed. Excavated during the 20th cent., its ruins constituted some of the most significant stone monuments of Iraq, but in the 2015–16 the Islamist extremist group Islamic StateIslamic State
(IS), Sunni Islamic militant group committed to the establishment of an Islamic caliphate that would unite Muslims in a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state.
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 destroyed statues and looted the site.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Hatra

 

a Parthian city, presently in ruins, in northern Iraq, near the village of al-Hadr. Hatra was founded before the Common Era. It flourished in the first and second centuries A.D. and was destroyed in 257. The city was built to a nearly oval plan and covered an area of approximately 320 hectares. There are remains of triple stone and mud-brick city walls with four gates, a stone palace-temple complex, dwellings, and burial structures. Round-shaped sculptures, reliefs, and other objects have been found there.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The other five World Heritage Sites are the southern marshlands, Hatra, Samarra, Ashur and the citadel in Erbil, the capital of Iraq's Kurdistan Region
The three others are also on the agency's "World Heritage in Danger" list and include Hatra, an ancient city in northern Ninevah province damaged by Daesh in 2014.
The suspected areas are Homs, the deserts of Anbar, Nineveh's Baaj and Hatra, Manayef and Al Sakhreyat as well as the shared borders between Iraq, Syria, and Turkey since they have no military presence.
With the exception of a few examples from the empire at home (a look at cults of eastern immigrants in Rome, or jewels from a tomb in Italy), the exhibition covers a vast geographic arc, starting in south-western Arabia, jumping to modern Jordan, skipping to Judea and Phoenicia, then proceeding eastwards to Baalbek in the Beqaa valley, the two extraordinary Syrian sites of Palmyra and Dura-Europos, then Hatra in northern Iraq, and finally Mesopotamia (Babylonia, Ctesiphon), stopping on the edges of Iran.
Aramaic Graffiti from Hatra: A Study Based on the Archive of the Missione Archeologica Italiana
Significantly, gad here is simply "the gad," not the gad of "X," as in so many contemporary inscriptions from Palmyra and Hatra. His identity as personal god is thus obvious enough for the dedicators that no further specification was necessary.
Focus areas include the desert districts south of Mosul such as Qayyarah, Hatra, Ash Shura, the southwestern outer urban sprawl of Mosul city (Atshana, Sahaji, and Tall Zallat), and the desert located between the Baghdad-Mosul highway and the Iraq-Turkey Pipeline--the so-called "Jurn Corridor" (named after two notorious villages in the area).
World Heritage Centre Arab States' unit chief Nada Al Hassan referred to three Iraqi sites on the list which have all fallen victim to militant attacks - the cities of Ashur and Hatra and the Samarra Archaeological City.
"There are sleeper cells in the Hatra region and the thousands of square kilometers of Jazira," the vast desert stretching from the west of Baghdad right up to the Syrian border, said Haytham al-Shammar, a tribal leader.
Latif Al Ani, Stolen head that was not retrieved, Hatra, c.