Hats


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Hats

 

an 18th-century Swedish political party. Formed in the 1730’s, it represented the interests of certain elements in the nobility and of some leading members of the bourgeoisie, especially those living in the capital. The party sought to revenge Sweden’s defeat in the Northern War of 1700–21 and to restore the country’s influence in foreign affairs and its military might through the rapid development of industry and a rapprochement with France. The Hats came to power in 1738 after gaining a majority in the Riksdag and bringing down the government of A. Horn. Strong opposition to the party, however, arose as a result of Sweden’s defeat in the war with Russia of 1741–43, which the Hats had instigated, and the inflation and financial collapse caused by the country’s participation in the Seven Years’ War of 1756–63. In 1765 the Hats, who had become increasingly identified as the party Of the conservative nobility, were displaced from power by the party known as the Young Caps (seeCAPS). From 1769 to 1771 the Hats again had a majority in the Riksdag. The palace revolution of 1772 led to the abolition of political parties, including the Hats.

References in classic literature ?
You see, they want to get married," said the man with the clerical hat.
If he starts off with the top hat and umbrella the afternoon turns out fearfully hot, and the perspiration takes all the soap out of his mustache and converts the beautifully arranged curl over his forehead into a limp wisp resembling a lump of seaweed.
Lynde and going to church with buttercups round your hat I don't know what she'll think of you.
Well, they tell me I am looking pretty blooming,' said the man with the cocked hat, 'and it's a wonder, too.
Blanche's name had barely passed her husband's lips before Blanche herself verified Sir Patrick's prediction, by reappearing at the open French window, with the superseded white hat in her hand.
The first proof he experienced of the fact, was conveyed in a hollow sound, immediately succeeded by the sudden flying off of his hat to the opposite end of the room.
When I say that he constantly walked in and out of the room with his hat on; and stopped to converse in the same free-and- easy state; and lay down on our sofa, and pulled his newspaper out of his pocket, and read it at his ease; I merely mention these traits as characteristic of the country: not at all as being matter of complaint, or as having been disagreeable to me.
These are the more patent facts which are to be deduced from his hat.
I dare not,' said the other, 'for if I were to put my hat on straight, there would come such a frost that the very birds in the sky would freeze and fall dead on the earth.
Kit acknowledged these expressions of confidence by touching his hat again and blushing very much.
Probably on Oblonsky's pointing them out, he looked round in the direction where the princess and Sergey Ivanovitch were standing, and without speaking lifted his hat.
Datchery, taking off his hat to give that shock of white hair of his another shake, seemed quite resigned, and betook himself whither he had been directed.