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Hatshepsut(hätshĕp`so͝ot), d. 1458 B.C., ruler of ancient Egypt, of the XVIII dynasty; eldest daughter of Thutmose IThutmose I
or Thothmes I
, d. 1495 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, third ruler of the XVIII dynasty; successor of Amenhotep I. He became king c.1525. In a great campaign he subjugated the valley of the Nile up to the Third Cataract (below the present Dongola).
..... Click the link for more information. . She managed to rule Egypt by relegating her husband (and younger half-brother), Thutmose IIThutmose II
or Thothmes II
, reigned c.1495–1490 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, fourth ruler of the XVIII dynasty and the son and successor of Thutmose I. Unlike Hatshepsut, his half-sister whom he married, Thutmose II did not have a royal mother.
..... Click the link for more information. , to the background during his brief reign. After his death, she continued in power as regent to his son, Thutmose IIIThutmose III
or Thothmes III
, d. 1436 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, of the XVIII dynasty; the successor of Thutmose II. After the death of Thutmose II, his wife Hatshepsut became regent for Thutmose III and relegated him to an inferior position for 22 years while she
..... Click the link for more information. , and at some point was named pharoah. Thereafter she was regarded as a king rather than a queen and was often portrayed in pharaonic costume, including a false beard. Her reign (c.1479–1458) was peaceful, and she developed the resources of Egypt, encouraging trade and reviving the mining at Sinai. She also restored numerous monuments, initiated construction at Thebes, and built the famous mortuary temple at Deir el Bahari in W Thebes. After her death, however, all references to her on Egypt's monuments were obliterated, presumably by order of Thutmose III. In 2007 Egyptologists announced they believed they had identified her mummy.
Egyptian queen from 1525 to 1503 B.C.
Hatshepsut was co-ruler with her stepbrother and husband, Thutmose II (pharaoh from 1525 to circa 1523), and with her stepson, Thumose III (pharaoh from 1525 to 1473). She deprived her co-rulers of power and officially declared herself pharaoh (artists later depicted Hatshepsut with the pharaonic beard). She was supported chiefly by the priesthood of Amon. During her reign, Egypt’s holdings in Palestine and Syria were practically lost, a trading expedition to Punt was prepared, and the construction of temples was intensified. After Hatshepsut’s death, Thutmose III, wishing to eradicate her memory, ordered her images and all inscriptions of her name to be obliterated.