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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also Hattian, Khattish, Proto-Hittite), an ancient language of the peoples of central Asia Minor. Hattic, which was supplanted by the Indo-European languages Hittite and Palaic, is attested by invocations to the gods interspersed in Hittite cuneiform texts. Only those Hattic texts provided with a Hittite translation are decipherable.

Hattic is an agglutinative language. No distinction is made between nouns and adjectives. Nominal and verbal stems may be preceded by locative elements similar to prepositions or pre-verbs. Grammatical relations of the verb are expressed primarily through a string of prefixes that conform to a set order; there are groups of prefixes that may be assigned to a single position. Usually, three or four of the ten positions are occcupied. If the chain of prefixes is traced from the beginning of the word to the stem, the verbal prefixes indicate prohibition, desire, location of the subject, reflexivity, the subject (singular or plural number), location of the object, and the object. The verb is not marked for tense or person.

Grammatical relations of the noun are expressed through prefixes that mark such categories as possession and collective and plural number and through suffixes that indicate the dative case, ablative case, and absence of possession in oblique cases. The marking of case forms is optional.

Hattic has no ergative case, but the subject-object conjugation of verbs and the distinction between verbs of action and verbs of state justify classifying it as an ergative language. Some linguists have suggested that Hattic is related to the Abkhazo-Adyg languages because of the similarity between the specific verbal structures of these languages. Scholars are uncertain, however, of the phonetic characteristics of the Hattic morphemes and do not have precise information as to the morphemes’ significance; these obstacles, compounded by the 3,000-year gap separating Hattic and the Abkhazo-Adyg languages, make comparisons unpersua-sive.


D’iakonov, I. M. Iazyki drevnei Perednei Azii. Moscow, 1967.
Dunaievskaia, I. M. “Printsipy struktury khattskogo (protokhettskogo) glagola.” Peredneaziatskii sbornik, 1961, vol. 1, pp. 57–159.
Dunaievskaia, I. M. “Zum Hattischen.” Orientalische Literaturzeitung, 1973, vol. 68, no. 1/2.
Kammenhuber, A. “Das Hattische.” In Handbuch der Orientalistik, division 1, vol. 2, fasc. 2. Leiden-Cologne, 1969.
Schuster, H. S. Die hattisch-hethitischen Bilinguen, vol. 1, part 1. Leiden, 1974.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
He argues that in native Hittite compositions, in contrast to the usage in translations from Hattic or Hurrian, the pronoun always has its normal function of referring back to an antecedent, while the noun in the sentence is in apposition to the pronoun and is inserted to avoid confusion.
Ergativity was also found in a number of extinct languages of the ancient Near East: Sumerian, Hattic, and Elamite (all isolates) and Hurrian and Urartian (which are related to one another).
We could compare his presence here to that in the Hattic ritual CTH 733, where he invokes the gods (the verb in this case is mald-, restricted only to the Hattic parts; Torri 2009: 215).
In chapter 2 the moment is the domestication of plants and animals, described through the experiences of a single family of hunters and gatherers and written in a style that resembles that of Rudyard Kiplings "Just So Stories," even addressing the reader as "Best Beloved." In chapter 3 the author imagines the inspiration behind the recording of some Hattic spells, with the tale of a young Hittite couple visiting a "Hattic crone" in an attempt to save their ailing baby.
108), Popko draws several useful conclusions regarding Arinna: The town maintained its traditional, largely Hattic, character (p.
Following an introduction and discussion of personal names from ancient Asia Minor, he discusses Hattic and other possible pre-Indo-European languages of the area, then in turn members of the Anatolian subgroup of Indo-European, followed by other Indo-European-speaking groups with a presence in Asia Minor and finally other relevant non-Indo-European languages.
Other articles include a contribution by Klengel on the system of Hittite government in Syria, by Klinger on historiography, by Otto and Pecchioli Daddi on "release" in Hittite, Hurrian and Hattic, by Rieken on the date of the Hittite "King of Battle" story, by Rutherford on "The Song of the Sea" as part of the Hurro-Hittite "Kingship in Heaven" cycle, by Alaura on the archives and libraries of Hattusa, by Hoffner on food and food production, by Hutter on Arzawan religion, by Richter on the Hurrian pantheon in Old Babylonian northern Mesopotamia, by Nakamura on the Nutarriyasha-festival, by Lebrun on the cities of Urikina, Ussa and Uda, and by Karasu on colophons.
belong also to the north-Anatolian cultural tradition and to the Hattic tradition in particular." She has analyzed a fragment of a Hittite ritual containing an antiphonal Hattic song (KBo 37.68) as evidence that the Hittites had adopted an indigenous Anatolian custom of solemnly proclaiming one's freedom from sahhan and luzzi obligations when disbursing a marriage portion, which carries these responsibilities.
lalla(m)puri(ya)-: If a word occurs only in Kizzuwatnean rituals, as this does, and exhibits a spelling variation of the type m--mp--p, it is obviously a Hurrian, not a Hattic, word.
Pecchioli Daddi, Mestieri, Professioni e Dignita nell'Anatolia ittita (Rome: Ateneo, 1982): 235 > Hattic zinir "lyre" + Hittite -talla-, professional suffix.
Harpis is not an abbreviated form, but rather the Hattic name without the Hittite thema-vowel (like Hakpis/Hakpisa, or Nerik/Nerikka).
This may be attributed, if Alaca is equated with Arinna, to the conservative and specialized nature of the town which can be traced back to the Hittite's Hattic predecessors.