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(named for the German mineralogist J. F. L. Hausmann, 1782-1859), a mineral having the composition MnMn2O4, containing 31 percent MnO and 69 percent Mn2O3. It crystallizes in a tetragonal system, close to spinel in structure. It is usually found in the form of granular aggregates, less commonly as crystals of octahedral appearance. It is black in color, with a hardness on the mineralogical scale of 5-5.5 and a density of 4,700-4,900 kg/m3. It is nonmagnetic. Hausmannite forms in metamorphosed sedimentary, contact-metasomatic, and hydrothermal deposits of manganese ores. It is the chief ore-bearing mineral of some manganese deposits in the Urals, such as Sapal’skoe, and in Kazakhstan, such as Naizatas. The industrial importance of hausmannite ores is limited; they are used in ferrous metallurgy for smelting ferromanganese or for lining in smelting pig iron.