Head of State

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Head of State


the individual who fulfills the functions of the highest executive authority in the state. In monarchical states (such as Great Britain, Denmark, Sweden, and Iran) the head of state is a hereditary monarch: an emperor, king, prince, grand duke, padishah, and the like; in bourgeois republics he is an elected president. In a number of countries (the USA, some Latin American states) the head of state is simultaneously head of the government. The competence of the head of state and his term of office (in the case of an elected one) are determined by a constitution. Usually the head of state is invested with rather wide powers. He represents the state in international relations, receives foreign diplomats, and, as a rule, is commander in chief of the armed forces. He possesses the right of legislative initiative and, in a number of countries, the right to impose a veto on laws passed by parliament. The right to issue edicts and decrees is his, as well. Usually he is empowered to award orders and other high decorations and to grant pardons. In several countries (such as France and the Federal Republic of Germany) the head of state convenes parliament and has the right to dissolve it as a whole, or one of its chambers.

In actuality the role of the head of state is not the same in various capitalist countries. It is greatest in those countries where the head of state is simultaneously head of the government, that is, in the so-called presidential republics (for example, in the USA and some Latin American countries). In general this phenomenon reflects a tendency characteristic of contemporary imperialist states whereby the power of the executive authority is strengthened at the expense of the representative bodies. It is precisely to this end that the powers of a president are widened, so that in some countries he is being transformed into a personal dictator.

In the majority of socialist states there is no individual who acts as head of state. Rather his functions are executed by the collegial body of the highest representative institution (a presidium or state council). The term of office of this body is the same as that of the representative institution, and its members are chosen from the latter. In those socialist states which have an individual acting as head of state (for example, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia), he is responsible for his actions to the highest representative institution and jointly with it, or on its authorization, performs the functions of the head of state.


References in periodicals archive ?
President of the Montenegrin Parliament Ivan Brajovic conveyed the greetings of the president and prime minister of Montenegro to the head of state.
Employee Huseyn Hashimov thanked the head of state for supporting construction of new plants and his attention to the development of the city.
The Head of State must be sworn in by the Registrar of the Supreme Court in the presence of the Chief Justice.
In 2017, 54 percent said that a capable and popular woman can be head of state, while 46 percent said otherwise.
html) poll from November 2015 , 51 percent indicated they would prefer an Australian head of state to a "King Charles.
A spokesman said the Welsh Government has updated its flag-flying to say that "flags are not routinely flown at half-mast in the event of the death of a serving foreign head of state, but may be at the discretion of the First Minister, who will take into account the nature of the relationship between Wales and the country in question.
I would say to the anti-Royals, be careful what you wish for - God forbid that we end up with another Putin, Assad or some over-promoted jobs-worth as Head of State.
2004) ('The obligation of the Judicial Branch is clear--a determination by the Executive Branch that a foreign head of state is immune from suit is conclusive and a court must accept such a determination without reference to the underlying claims of a plaintiff.
ISLAMABAD -- 54% of Pakistanis think a woman can be head of state, according to a Gilani Research Foundation Survey carried out by Gallup Pakistan.
Summary: President His Highness Shaikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan sent on Tuesday, a cable congratulating Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez over his victory in the re-election as the Head of State.
A special aircraft sent by Kuwaiti Head of State Al-Saibah has already arrived in Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu.
TALLINN -- On April 13, at Stenbock House in Tallinn, on the 125th anniversary of Head of State Juhan Kukk's birth, the State Chancellery and Estonian Post, Ltd.