health insurance

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health insurance,

prepayment plan providing services or cash indemnities for medical care needed in times of illness or disability. It is effected by voluntary plans, either commercial or nonprofit, or by compulsory national insurance plans, usually connected with a social securitysocial security,
government program designed to provide for the basic economic security and welfare of individuals and their dependents. The programs classified under the term social security differ from one country to another, but all are the result of government legislation
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 program.

Health Insurance Worldwide

Compulsory accident and sickness insurance was initiated (1883–84) in Germany by Otto von Bismarck; it was adopted by Great Britain, France, Chile, the Soviet Union, and other nations after World War I. In Britain the National Health Insurance Act of 1946, which went into effect in 1948, provided the most comprehensive compulsory medical care plan introduced anywhere up to that time. Under the plan the individual obtained free medical attention from any doctor participating in the national health service. The cost was met by the national government and local taxation; a small charge for some services has been instituted since then. In 1958 the Canadian Hospital and Diagnoses Act provided full hospital service almost free of charge in public wards; more comprehensive coverage was added in 1967. The program is financed by the federal government but administered by the provinces. National health insurance has been widely adopted in Europe and parts of Asia. The United States is the only Western industrial nation without some form of comprehensive national health insurance.

Health Insurance in the United States

In the past, health insurance in the United States took the form of voluntary programs. Such programs date from about 1850, when health insurance was provided chiefly by cooperative mutual benefit and fraternal beneficiary associations. Limited coverage by commercial companies was also introduced during that period, and subsequently many plans were established by industries and labor unions.

Advocacy of government health insurance in the United States began in the early 1900s. Theodore Roosevelt made national health insurance one of the major planks of the Progressive party during the 1912 presidential campaign, and in 1915 a model bill for health insurance was presented, but defeated, in numerous state legislatures. After 1920 opposition to government-sponsored plans was led by the American Medical Association and was said to be motivated by the fear that government participation in medical care might lead to socialized medicinesocialized medicine,
publicly administered system of national health care. The term is used to describe programs that range from government operation of medical facilities to national health-insurance plans.
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.

Over the years in the United States, many plans have been set up by societies of practicing physicians, but the largest enrollment has been in Blue Cross and Blue Shield plans. These were set up as community-sponsored, nonprofit service plans based on contracts with hospitals and with subscribers. Most general voluntary plans accept subscribers, in groups or as individuals. These plans extend coverage to dependents and exclude accidents and diseases covered by workers' compensationworkers' compensation,
payment by employers for some part of the cost of injuries, or in some cases of occupational diseases, received by employees in the course of their work.
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 laws. Although valuable in cushioning the financial distress caused by illness or injury, voluntary health insurance not only limits benefits in order to avoid prohibitive rates but excludes many people, particularly the poor, who cannot afford it, and senior citizens, for whom the cost is often prohibitive. By the mid-1990s many of the Blue Cross companies, which had been suffering financially, were reorganizing, and by 2002 more than 20% of Blue Cross members were covered by plans that had converted to for-profit status.

During the middle of the 20th cent. it became apparent that legislation was necessary to provide medical care for the elderly. A voluntary federal-state grant-in-aid program providing medical care to the elderly was first implemented in 1961. Legislation proposed by President Kennedy to provide medical care for the aged through the social security mechanism was defeated in 1961, but in 1965, during President Lyndon B. Johnson's administration, Federal legislation in the form of MedicareMedicare,
national health insurance program in the United States for persons aged 65 and over and the disabled. It was established in 1965 with passage of the Social Security Amendments and is now run by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
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 for the aged and MedicaidMedicaid,
national health insurance program in the United States for low-income persons and persons with disabilities. It was established in 1965 with passage of the Social Security Amendments and is now run by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
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 for the indigent was enacted. Since 1966, both public and private health insurance has played a key role in financing health-care costs in the United States.

Over 70% of all medical bills are now covered by government programs and insurance, and the number of people covered by some form of health insurance increased from about 12 million in 1940 to over 225 million in 1996. About 38 million Americans were enrolled in Medicare, and there were more than 36 million Medicaid recipients. In that same year, about 187 million people were covered by private health insurance. However, more than 44 million Americans were not covered by any health insurance, and those who are have seen significant cost increases. As premiums increased from $16.8 billion in 1970 to $310 billion in 1995, and national health-care costs rose from $75 billion in 1970 to just over $1 trillion in 1996, many businesses increased the amount of money employees contribute toward their health insurance. This situation has led to continuing political pressure for restructuring of the national health-care insurance system.

Congress debated many bills for a national health insurance plan in the 1960s and 70s, and in 1973 it passed the Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Act, which provided grants to employers who set up HMOs (see health maintenance organizationhealth maintenance organization
(HMO), type of prepaid medical service in which members pay a monthly or yearly fee for all health care, including hospitalization. The term "health maintenance organization" was coined by a health policy analyst, Dr.
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). Unlike insurers, HMOs provide care directly to patients; HMOs were viewed as low-cost alternatives to hospitals and private doctors. In 1997 approximately 651 HMOs provided care to 66.8 million people.

In the 1980s and 90s political leaders again advanced a variety of national health insurance proposals. One plan backed by leading Democrats was known as "pay or play" because it would have forced employers to provide health insurance or pay into a national fund that would cover uninsured workers. A second, advanced by President G. H. W. BushBush, George Herbert Walker,
1924–, 41st President of the United States (1989–93), b. Milton, Mass., B.A., Yale Univ., 1948. Career in Business and Government
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 in 1992, would have provided tax breaks, vouchers, and other incentives to employers to extend health insurance benefits. A third proposal, based on the Canadian model and nationalized health care, was opposed by most doctors and the insurance industry.

In 1993, President ClintonClinton, Bill
(William Jefferson Clinton), 1946–, 42d President of the United States (1993–2001), b. Hope, Ark. His father died before he was born, and he was originally named William Jefferson Blythe 4th, but after his mother remarried, he assumed the surname of his
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, who had been elected on a promise of health-care reform, proposed a national health insurance program that would have ultimately provided coverage for most citizens, but opposition by insurance, medical, small-business, and other groups killed it. In 1999, Clinton and Congress battled over developing a "patient's bill of rights," to protect people from denial of service and other HMO limitations.

A federal overhaul of the U.S. health insurance system again became a national issue in 2009 after the election of President Barack ObamaObama, Barack
(Barack Hussein Obama 2d), , 1961–, 44th president of the United States (2009–17), b. Honolulu, grad. Columbia (B.A. 1983), Harvard Law School (J.D. 1991).
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. The Democratic president and Democratic-controlled Congress attempted to craft a federal law that would expand U.S. health-insurance coverage, but despite securing broader support than President Clinton had they still faced difficulty in winning passage of the legislation, which was only achieved in Mar., 2010. The resulting legislation largely left the current U.S. health insurance system unmodified, attempting to increase the number of Americans covered by health insurance to an estimated 95% by 2019 by expanding Medicaid, providing subsidies to low- and middle-income families, requiring many companies to provide insurance and most Americans to have it, creating insurance exchanges on which individuals could shop for health insurance, and increasing taxes on the wealthiest Americans. Participation in the expansion of Medicaid (effective 2014) is voluntary for the states, and only about half have elected to participate. Many individual states have developed their own health insurance alternatives by using managed-health-caremanaged health care,
system of health-care delivery that aims to control costs by assigning set fees for services, monitoring the need for procedures such as tests and surgical operations, and stressing preventive care.
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 systems that monitor the type of services offered and have set fees for each service, by expanding Medicaid to help serve formerly ineligible patients, and by establishing statewide or small-business health insurance alliances that pool people into a large group that has more buying power. Donald Trump, who criticized the 2010 health-care law during his presidential campaign and called for its replacement, moved to limit it and have it replaced after taking office in 2017.

Bibliography

See H. Eckstein, The English Health Service (1958); D. S. Hirshfield, The Lost Reform (1970); M. V. Pauly, Medical Care at Public Expense (1971); J. Blanpain, National Health Insurance (1978); O. Anderson, Health Services in the United States (1985); F. T. O'Grady, Individual Health Insurance (1988); D. Long, Principles of Life and Health Insurance (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
An insurer (ie insurance, no broker) sought for the insurance coverage of the risks relating to occupational health insurance contract for employees.
Health care reform has crushed the health insurance contract and, like most things in our economy, there doesn't seem to be a bottom in site.
I was not doing anything illegal and the company, under the permanent health insurance contract, does owe me a living, contrary to Maureen Messent's biased opinionse.
20) The health insurance contract choice effect can play an important role in determining the consumer's observable demand response to a change in the gross price of medical care.
We show that an increase in the gross price of medical care has two effects on demand, the usual response of reduced quantity demanded and a health insurance contract choice effect resulting from the consumer's incentive to change his insurance plan.
s loss of a roughly $4 billion health insurance contract, Prudential executives and industry analysts say they expect a major restructuring of the 120-year-old company's health care business.
NEW YORK -- Fitch Ratings is not taking rating action in response to the breaking off of negotiations between Tufts Medical Center (TMC) and Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts, regarding the renewal of TMC's health insurance contract.
Service delivery contract for the purchase of an additional compulsory health insurance contract for the needs of the MSA Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
About the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association The Blue Cross Blue Shield Association's Federal Employee Program administers the largest privately underwritten health insurance contract in the world, delivering the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Service Benefit Plan to more than 5.
The hospital cited lower-than-projected patient volumes, the continued exclusion from a key health insurance contract and a lagging economy as the cause of the layoffs.
They adopt an approach under which the assumption is made that a life insurance contract and an accident and health insurance contract that could be sold separately should be allowed to be sold together, without endangering the contract's qualification as a life insurance contract under Sec.
In 2004, this hidden tax cost Washington employers an average of $902 per family health insurance contract -- 13 percent of all commercial hospital and physician costs.

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