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a general term for heating devices used to heat substances, objects, media, and rooms. A distinction is made between heat-generating and heat-exchange heaters. Transformation of various types of energy into heat, such as conversion of chemical energy (during combustion) or electric power, takes place in heat-generating heaters. In heat-exchange heaters, heat is supplied by various heat-transfer media (for example, hot water or steam).
(also heating units), appliances installed in premises to provide heat, usually by transferring it from a heat-carrying agent that circulates in the heating system.
The type of heater that is used depends on the heating system. Hot-air heaters and other convection heaters, for example, are used in hot-air systems. In the most common hot-water and steam heating systems, the heating units are radiators, convec-tors, panels, baseboard units, and smooth or finned tubing. In radiant and panel heating systems, the heater function is performed by the walls, ceiling, or floor or by special panels of the attachable or suspendable types. Heating surfaces are created by embedding small-diameter pipes, runs of electrical cable, or air flues and ducts within any of these structures.