The coal is lignite to lignite-A to sub bituminous B and C in character with an average heating value
of 6000 BTU/lb.'
* 1949-2014: EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.800 million Btu per barrel as reported in a Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, "Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Values
of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950." * 2015 forward: Calculated annually by EIA based on conversion of American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity ranges of crude oil production as reported on Form EIA-914, "Monthly Crude Oil, Lease Condensate, and Natural Gas Production Report." Specific gravity (SG) = 141.5 / (131.5 + API gravity).
For bulk density, proximate analysis and heating value
, mean, variance and side deviation analysis were made.
Based on the Boie equation (see (4) and (5)), heating value
per unit stoichiometric oxygen can be determined using (6).
In addition to elemental composition, other important properties of coal, such as ash content and ash fusion temperature or even heating value
that have complicated relation to elemental composition, are determined on the basis of LIBS spectra using multivariate analysis methods [3-5].
The density at 20[degrees]C and the lower heating value
were collected in triplicate, the results were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means were compared by Tukey test, adopting the significance level of 1-5% using the statistical package version Assistat[R] 7.7 beta (Silva, 2014).
Where: D: basic density (kg [([m.sup.3]).sup.-1]) for firewood, and bulk density for pellets and sawdust; divided by [10.sup.6] to convert to Gcal; HHV: higher heating value
; LHV: HHV-324 (kcal [kg.sup.-1]).
Keywords: Coconut Leaf Midrib Charcoal, Boiling Rate, Heating Value
, Burning Efficiency, Charcoal Burning Rate
The analysis of each vaporized sample determined whether any liquid had been ingested by the test probe and quantified the heating value
bias due to the liquid contamination.
Indirect combustion provides clean, safe heating, but only a fraction of the fuel's heating value
is used for useful heating.
Further, agricultural biomass has also been used as fuel for combustion but its use can be limited due to low heating value
as compared to woody biomass.