Heike Kamerlingh Onnes


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Onnes, Heike Kamerlingh:

see Kamerlingh Onnes, HeikeKamerlingh Onnes, Heike
, 1853–1926, Dutch physicist. He was, from 1882, professor of physics at the Univ. of Leiden. He made important studies of the properties of helium and, in attempting to solidify it, produced a temperature within one degree of absolute zero.
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Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike

(hī`kə kä`mərlĭng ôn`əs), 1853–1926, Dutch physicist. He was, from 1882, professor of physics at the Univ. of Leiden. He made important studies of the properties of helium and, in attempting to solidify it, produced a temperature within one degree of absolute zero. In the course of his low temperature experiments, he discovered the property of superconductivitysuperconductivity,
abnormally high electrical conductivity of certain substances. The phenomenon was discovered in 1911 by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, who found that the resistance of mercury dropped suddenly to zero at a temperature of about 4.
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 in certain metals. For these researches he received the 1913 Nobel Prize in Physics.

Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike

 

Born Sept. 21, 1853, in Groningen; died Feb. 21, 1926, in Leiden. Dutch physicist and chemist. Doctor of philosophical sciences (1879). Professor at the University of Leiden from 1882 to 1924.

In an effort to obtain liquid helium, Kamerlingh Onnes organized a specially equipped cryogenic laboratory at the University of Leiden, which became a world center for low-temperature physics and was subsequently named after him. Here he first achieved temperatures close to absolute zero and in 1908 obtained liquid helium. Kamerlingh Onnes studied the physical properties of various substances at low temperatures, especially those of mercury, lead, and tin. While investigating the electrical resistance of mercury in 1911, he observed that the resistance disappeared at a temperature of 4. 1°K. This phenomenon was called superconductivity. He also worked on thermodynamics, magneto-optics, and radioactivity. Kamerlingh Onnes was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1913.

WORKS

“On the Changes of the Electrical Resistance of Pure Metals at Very Low Temperatures. V. The Disappearance of the Resistance of Mercury.” Communication From the Physical Laboratory at the University of Leiden. 1911, no. 122, p. 13.

REFERENCE

Keesom, W. Gelii. Moscow, 1949. (Translated from English.) (Containsa bibliography of Kamerlingh Onnes’ works.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Superconductivity was discovered on April 8, 1911, by  Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, who was studying the resistance of solid mercury at cryogenic temperatures using the recently produced liquid helium as a refrigerant.
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, the pioneer in low temperature research who worked at Leyden, Holland, used the method of lowering temperature by reducing the vapor pressure of liquid helium.
Takano plans to present his findings at a European conference in September in The Hague, near Leiden where Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered superconductivity 100 years ago.
Although superconductivity--a quantum state in which materials have no resistance to electrical current--was discovered in 1911 by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, it was for a long time a curiosity only witnessed in cryogenic labs.
Conventional superconductors were first discovered in the early 20th century, when Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes cooled mercury to four degrees Kelvin (-269 degrees Celsius), and observed that the material's electrical resistance dropped to zero.
It presents the first complete English translation of the inaugural speech of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes on the occasion of his appointment as Professor at the University of Leiden (The Netherlands) in 1882.
Its physics and astronomy laboratories were once the base for Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, the distinguished scientist who first discovered the temperature of absolute zero at the end of last century.
In 1908 the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1926) set about the task of liquefying helium.
Since the discovery of superconductivity in 1911 by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, researchers around the world have been trying to exploit the phenomena in a variety of applications, including medical imaging, power generation, and motors.
The very first superconductor was found in 1911, when Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered that mercury lost its electrical resistance when cooled to 4 kelvins.
Although superconductivity was first observed in 1911, when Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes found mercury to superconduct when cooled to temperatures reaching 4K (-452[degrees]F), there was no widespread use of superconductors because it was impractical to cool materials to this extreme temperature.
Conventional superconductors are explained through the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory, which was formulated some 40 years after the first superconductor was discovered by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes in 1911.