"Eisenmenger belonged to the class of insects which sucks poison even out of flowers," the 19th-century Jewish historian Heinrich Graetz
's sense of the unity of Jewish history contributed to a popularization of Jewish people hood and even "national Judaism," and networks of scholars around the world saw the work that they were doing as having great import not just in terms of the intellectual endeavor or study "for its own sake," but also to contribute to the challenges facing Jews around the world.
This conclusion contradicts the views of historians Heinrich Graetz
(1817-1891) and Shimon Dubnov (1860-1941), who viewed the salonnieres as "traitors who severed their ties" with the Jewish community.
His topics include Meier Hirsch Landauer and Abraham Adler (1838-45), Adolf Jellinek (1851-52) and first reactions to him, Ignaz Stern's study on the composition of the Zohar 1858), the seventh volume of Heinrich Graetz
' history of the Jews (1863), and Kabbalah in Jewish textbooks.
With the rise of German nationalism in the 19th century, Jewish historian Heinrich Graetz
"retrospectively" crafted a discrete identity for the ghettoised people - mapping their origin to an old kingdom and wandering exiles.
The Zionist movement would have been impossible were it not for the work of Heinrich Graetz
, the historian who created the historical image of the Jews which we all learned at school.
Lazarus found this idea of the true biblical Israel echoed in German Jewish historiography, notably in Heinrich Graetz
's History of the Jews.
Hoffman's book explores the intensive effort to reclaim Jesus for the modern Jewish community through a detailed analysis of the writings of such leading Jewish scholars of the period as Moses Mendelssohn, Abraham Geiger, Heinrich Graetz
, and Kaufman Kohler, as well as Yiddish writers, often quite secular in their orientation, such as Chaim Zhitlovsky and Sholem Asch, whose works are largely unknown in dialogue circles today and who were deeply connected with the East European effort to develop a modern Jewish cultural identity.
If to demonstrate Hirsch's (unquestionably) controversial position about the nature of Torah, would it not have made more sense to cite a salient passage from Zacharias Frankel, or Abraham Geiger, or Heinrich Graetz
, with whom Hirsch actually disagreed on the very topic of the nature of the sacredness of Jewish texts?
The historian Heinrich Graetz
(History of the Jews) writes that: "Rashi's mantle fell upon his grandsons and sons-in-law, who were his greatest disciples.
Jewish thinkers like Moses Mendelssohn, Heinrich Heine, Heinrich Graetz
, Sigmund Freud, Hermann Cohen, Franz Rosenzweig, Walter Benjamin and others took issue with this dimension of German Idealist philosophy by creating counter-narratives or, since Kant's original views were based on an analysis of the historical Israelites, counter-histories (with the ironic result that in Mack's system Heine, the writer, constructs a counter-history while Graetz, one of the foremost historians of the Jewish people, writes a counter-narrative).
Fortunately, Scott Bradbury does not subscribe to the negative view of Heinrich Graetz
and others as regards the authenticity and historical reliability of this epistle.