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(both: hējăz`, hĕjäz`), region, c.150,000 sq mi (388,500 sq km), NW Saudi Arabia, on the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. MeccaMecca
or Makkah
, city (1993 pop. 966,381), capital of the Hejaz, W Saudi Arabia. The birthplace c.A.D. 570 of Muhammad the Prophet, it is the holiest city of Islam, and the goal of the annual Muslim hajj. It is c.
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 is the chief city. Extending S to Asir, Hejaz is mainly a dissected highland region lying between the narrow, long coastal strip and the interior desert. There are several oases and some wadis (watercourses) where livestock and crops, such as dates and wheat, are raised. Economically important cities include Taif and Yanbu. The junction of the main north-south and east-west highways of Saudi Arabia, Taif is an important mountain city and market. Yanbu on the Red Sea is a major petrochemical city, the terminus for two oil pipelines. Hejaz is, however, more important as a place of pilgrimage. Each year many thousands of Muslim pilgrims come into Hejaz, mainly through JiddaJidda
or Jedda
, city (1993 est. pop. 2,058,000), Hejaz, W Saudi Arabia, on the Red Sea. Jidda is the port of Mecca (c.45 mi/72 km to the east) and annually receives a huge influx of pilgrims, mainly from Africa, Indonesia, and Pakistan.
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, the chief port, to visit the holy cities of Mecca and MedinaMedina
, Arabic Medinat an-Nabi [city of the Prophet] or Madinat Rasul Allah [city of the apostle of Allah], city (1993 pop. 608,226), Hejaz, W Saudi Arabia. It is situated c.
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Following the fall (1258) of the caliphate of Baghdad, Hejaz came under Egyptian control. In 1517 it came under Turkish suzerainty, although nominal rule remained in the hands of the Hashemite sherifs of Mecca. In the early 19th cent. Hejaz was raided by the WahhabisWahhabi
or Wahabi
, reform movement in Islam, originating in Arabia; adherents of the movement usually refer to themselves as Muwahhidun [unitarians]. It was founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab (c.
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; peace was restored in 1817 by the governor of Egypt. After 1845, Hejaz came again under direct Turkish control. To improve communications, the Turks built the Hejaz railway (completed 1908) from Damascus to Medina; it was severely damaged during World War I and later abandoned. The Hejaz was in 1916 proclaimed independent by Husayn ibn AliHusayn ibn Ali
, 1856–1931, Arab political and religious leader. In 1908 he succeeded as grand sherif of Mecca and thus became ruler of the Hejaz under the Ottoman Empire.
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, the sherif of Mecca, who with the aid of T. E. LawrenceLawrence, T. E.
(Thomas Edward Lawrence), 1888–1935, British adventurer, soldier, and scholar, known as Lawrence of Arabia. While a student at Oxford he went on a walking tour of Syria and in 1911 joined a British Museum archaeological expedition in Mesopotamia.
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 destroyed Turkish authority. Husayn was himself defeated in 1924 by Ibn SaudIbn Saud
(Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud) , c.1880–1953, founder of Saudi Arabia and its first king. His family, with its regular seat at Riyadh in the Nejd, were the traditional leaders of the ultraorthodox Wahhabi movement in Islam.
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, ruler of NejdNejd
or Najd
, region, central Saudi Arabia. Riyadh, the country's capital and major city, is located there. The Nejd is a vast plateau from 2,500 to 5,000 ft (762–1,524 m) high.
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 and founder of Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia
, officially Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, kingdom (2015 est. pop. 27,752,000), 829,995 sq mi (2,149,690 sq km), comprising most of the Arabian peninsula. It is bounded on the west by the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; on the east by the Persian Gulf, Qatar, and the
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, who annexed his domain. The formal union of Hejaz and Nejd into Saudi Arabia was proclaimed in 1932.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a province in Saudi Arabia. Area, approximately 390,000 sq km. Population, approximately 2 million. The administrative and chief economic center is the city of Jidda. The population is engaged chiefly in nomadic livestock raising. Grain crops and dates and other fruit trees are grown in the oases and wadis. Fishing and coral gathering are practiced along the coast. The province has an oil refinery, a cement plant, and enterprises for processing metal and agricultural produce. There is also some handicraft cottage industry.

In the early seventh century, Muhammad first preached the new religion of Islam in the Hejaz, in the city of Mecca. The He-jaz was part of the Arabian Caliphate and, after the dissolution of the Caliphate, part of the Fatimid, Ayyubid, and Mameluke states. It became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1517. It was occupied by troops of the Egyptian pasha Muhammad Ali from 1811 to 1818 and remained an Egyptian province until 1840. Later it was ruled by a Turkish governor. In 1916 an insurrection against Turkish domination led by Husayn ibn Ali established the Hejaz as an independent kingdom.

In 1925 the Hejaz was conquered by the ruler of the Nejd, Ibn Saud, and made part of the newly formed state of Hejaz, Nejd, and regions annexed by Ibn Saud—all of which have been known as Saudi Arabia since 1932.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


, Hedjaz, Hijaz
a region of W Saudi Arabia, along the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba: formerly an independent kingdom; united with Nejd in 1932 to form Saudi Arabia. Area: about 348 600 sq. km (134 600 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
"The continuous demand for our various residential projects and the real opportunity that Al Hejaz Miram Community represents for those who want to live close to the two Holy Mosques encouraged us to release the new land plots after sales record in the first batch despite the economic slowdown."
According to Burqa Village Council, the al-Masoud family donated a 38-dunum plot of land in 1914 to the Hejaz Company for the construction of the railway station in the area.
The Ottoman Empire took control of Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Hejaz in the early 16th century.
He said Hejaz E Moqaddus in Saudi Arabia was the center of religious devotion and spirituality for Pakistanis and hearts and minds of the Muslims were filled with the tremendous love for Haramain Sharifain.
Hejaz Financial Services ("Hejaz FS") has licensed the IdealRatings Equity Screening solution to act as the stock screening service provider for its first Shari'ah-compliant, Australian fund, named Global Ethical Fund.
The UK recognises the sovereignty of King Ibn Saud in the Kingdoms of Hejaz and Nejd, which later merge to become Saudi Arabia.
The Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd gained independence from Britain in 1927 before the two regions were unified to form which country in 1932?
This article particularly attempts to focus on one of such prominent and authentic narratives entitled the Musafir-e-Hejaz (the pilgrim to the holy land of Hejaz) written by Badar Durrani, the Speaker of Sindh Legislative Assembly in 1950 CE.
Shamim Hejaz Shaffi, 48, of Crescent Road, Middlesbrough, fined PS220 and ordered to pay PS107 costs for not wearing a seat belt when driving.
At the same time, however, Khamenei activated his post as the supreme commander of all the armed forces in Iran and in any other part of the world vital to Iran's national security interests - i.e., Iran's "external provinces" like GCC states including the Saudi Hejaz province's Mecca and Madina, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, etc.
The mistakes came like beads on a string: The Armenian Genocide of 1915, the military defeats of 1916 in the eastern front, sending Turkish troops to Ukraine-Poland border, the unreasonable policy of Hejaz and the collapse of the state came one by one.