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(hĕl`gōlänt') or


(hĕl`ĭgōlănd'), island (1994 pop. 1,730), c.150 acres (60 hectares), Schleswig-Holstein, NW Germany, in the North Sea. Formed of red sandstone, it rises to c.200 ft (60 m) above the sea and is largely covered with grazing land. Strategically located near the mouths of the Weser and the Elbe rivers, Helgoland was captured by the Danes in 1714, was occupied by the English in 1807, and was formally ceded to England by Denmark in 1814. In exchange for rights in Africa, England gave the island to Germany in 1890. The Germans installed fortifications, which were razed after World War I according to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. However, Germany refortified Helgoland in 1936 and used it as a naval base in World War II. In 1947, British occupation authorities, after evacuating the islanders (mostly fishermen), blew up the fortifications and part of the island in one of the largest known nonatomic blasts. The island was largely rebuilt after British occupation forces returned it to West Germany in 1952. It is now a popular tourist resort and a center for scientific research, particularly ornithology.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an island in the North Sea, part of the Federal Republic of Germany (the Land of Schleswig-Holstein). Area, 0.9 sq km; population, 2,900 (1968). A health resort.

Populated by Frisians, Helgoland became a possession of the duchy of Schleswig in 1402; it became part of Denmark in 1714. In 1807 the island was occupied by Great Britain. On the basis of the so-called Helgoland-Zanzibar agreement of 1890, Great Britain, in exchange for Zanzibar and other territories in Africa, handed Helgoland over to Germany, which converted it (beginning in 1892) into an important sea fortress. Near Helgoland, on Aug. 28, 1914, the British fleet defeated a German squadron. The military installations on the island were destroyed in accord with the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles (1919), but beginning in 1935 Hitler’s Germany again converted Helgoland into a naval base. In May 1945, Helgoland was occupied by British armies. The population of Helgoland (in 1945 around 3,000 inhabitants) was completely resettled. The German fortifications were destroyed by deep blasting in 1947. From 1947 to 1952 the island served as an instruction and testing base for RAF target bombing. In March 1952, Helgoland was handed over to West Germany. The town and the harbor were restored.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The wind farms are located between 85 and 125 kilometers offshore, to the north-west of the islands of Borkum and Helgoland, and pose special challenges in terms of maintenance and logistics due to their exposure to a harsh maritime environment.
The wind farm, located 35 km of the Helgoland island, has a total installed capacity of 259 MW and will produce about 1.1 TWh of power when completed.
These range from a double inkwell made from metals taken from the surrendered German battleship 'Helgoland' to a cast metal monkey and walnut inkwell from 1880.
It has great passages--the reconstruction of Borne's witty conversation, the' Letters from Helgoland' which purport to anticipate and celebrate the July Revolution of 1830, the satirical account of a gathering of exiled revolutionaries, and the reflection on the opposed Hellene and Nazarene character-types--but it aroused, and still arouses, incredulous ridicule by claiming the moral high ground while salaciously accusing Borne of living in a menage a trois.
Mr Berriman and others paid pounds 64,000 for the goods on the duty-free zone at Germany's Helgoland island.
We compared growth, metabolic rates and mitochondrial key enzymes of blue mussels from the relatively warm temperate North Sea (Helgoland), the cold subArctic White Sea, where seasonal temperature variations can span up to 15[degrees]C, as well as from the cold, but thermally more stable Barents Sea (the seasonal difference in temperature is about 6[degrees]C).
In 1898 Lerner headed north once again, on board the fishing vessel Helgoland. One objective was to search for traces of Ornen or Andree and his companions.
(1967) International Symposium on Quantitative biology of metabolism: models of metabolism, metabolic parameters, damage to metabolism, metabolic control: 3rd International Symposium, Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, September 26-29.
Since 1909, researchers have been trapping birds on the island of Helgoland which lies about 70 kilometers off the northwestern coast of Germany.
He discovered the sub 16 miles off the German coast at Helgoland earlier this year.
Experts have identified the well-preserved E16 from pictures taken by amateur divers 18 miles off the German coast at Helgoland.
He was born in 1906 on the island of Helgoland, where the bustling streets and crowded, busy marketplaces formed his early experience of life in a large and cosmopolitan urban metropolis.