Those collections already made clear that the nature of Hellenistic
imagery found in Gandhara was unique.
A key claim, to which I shall return, is that the obviously "Greek" constructions--theatre and gymnasium--are a product of Hellenistic
colonization, while the buildings with apparently Near Eastern features--the palace and the main temple--derive from the official architecture of Achaemenid Bactria.
The exhibition adds much more to its purview, drawing on museums across the world, and the impression is rather like wandering in the plates section of a book on the Hellenistic
world: the Darius Crater (Naples); countless images of Alexander; a marble head of Pompey with his Alexander-style hair (Copenhagen); the striking bronze head of a man wearing the kciusia, the Macedonian beret (one of several bronzes recently found near the island of Kalymnos).
The real value of M.'s work is the selection of texts that provides valuable exposure to the variety and complexity of Hellenistic
Architectural remains belonging to several building phases were found: Phase I Hellenistic
period; Phase II rebuilding in the time of Augustus, probably after the large earthquake in 15 BC, when the first phase of the Roman Agora portico was constructed; Phase III rebuilding after the earthquake in the 70s AD; Phase IV rebuilding after the earthquake in the time of Hadrian, when the last phase of the Agora portico was constructed, representing what can be seen today on entering the Agora.
For example, he discusses the fascinating similarity between Hellenistic
aphorisms, recorded in various forms, and the thanksgiving statement for being born a man and not an animal, a woman, a Greek or a Barbarian.
When the ring was recovered from a waste pit near Hellenistic
structures, it was covered with layers of earth and corrosion, and the archaeologists had no indication whatsoever that it would reveal the shape of a legendary figure.
Apprehension and Argument: Ancient Theories of Starting Points for Knowledge surveys what author Miira Tuominen views as the arche (principles or "starting points") upon which episteme (knowledge) was built in Plato, Aristotle and in Hellenistic
Abu Dhabi: A glazed pottery jar from the Hellenistic
period and part of an extension of a falaj (ancient watering system), was found recently in the divider of a road in the city centre of Al Ain.
Settlements in Syria, the Red Sea Basin, and North Africa.
War in the Hellenistic
World: A Social and Cultural History, by Angelos Chaniotis.
This book, originally published in hardback in 1999, is without a doubt the most important recent product of the notable reevaluation of Hellenistic
philosophy that has been taking place particularly since the mid-1970s.