Friedrich Robert Helmert

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Helmert, Friedrich Robert


Born July 31, 1843, in Freiberg; died June 15, 1917, in Potsdam. German geodesist and geophysicist. Became a professor at Berlin University in 1887 and director of the Geodetic Institute in Berlin (later in Potsdam) in 1886; he also directed the Central International Bureau of Degree Measurements.

Helmert studied the acceleration of the force of gravity in the mountains. He determined the dimensions of the earth, worked out a formula for the normal distribution of gravitational forces on the surface of the earth’s ellipsoid, wrote a handbook of equivalent calculations, and was the author of the two-volume manual Mathematical and Physical Theory in Higher Geodesy (1880-84) and many other works on geodesy and geophysics.

References in periodicals archive ?
The Fugro Helmert research vessel lies at anchor at Invergordon
[12.] Cavelaars AE, Kunst AE, Geurts JJ, Crialesi R, Grotvedt L, Helmert U, et al.
Helmert coding was employed to compare first stimulus foils to second stimulus foils and one stimulus foils (i.e., first and second stimulus foils) to foils in which both stimuli were incorrect.
They proved that from any least squares solution (both for coordinates and velocities) on can obtain another least squares solution through the use of the well-known Helmert transformation parameters.
To compare between males and females in age we used generalize linear mixed models (GLMMs) with the Helmert contrast treating age as a dependent variable and sex as a fixed factor.
There is also evidence that even where national maternal and newborn mortality rates have improved, there are sub-groups where survival rates and access to services have not changed or even worsened over time (Paruzzolo et al., 2010; Boutayeb & Helmert, 2011; Bailey et al., 2011; Gabrysch et al., 2011; Johnson et al., 2015).
As the treatment conditions were largely aimed at examining dose response of mirogabalin, the main effect of treatment was analyzed via Helmert contrasts.
Examples of these approaches include Helmert VCE, minimum norm quadratic unbiased estimation method (MINQUE), best invariant quadratic unbiased estimator (BIQUE), and least-squares variance component estimation (LC-VCE).
To eliminate this fixed effect from the regression, we use the forward orthogonal difference (FOD) technique proposed by Arellano and Bover (1995), also commonly referred to as the Helmert transformation.