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a localized accumulation of liquid blood in tissues.
A hematoma is formed during hemorrhages if the blood does not infiltrate the tissues (such as the subcutaneous tissue, muscles, periosteum, brain, liver, and spleen) but rather separates them, forming a cavity. The primary cause of hematomas is trauma, or rupture of pathologically altered blood vessels. Small hematomas are resorbed without a trace, but an inflammatory reaction develops, with the formation of a thick capsule, around large ones. Hematomas result in swelling, ecchymosis, pain, and dysfunction of the affected organ. Treatment involves application of a pressure bandage, and treatment with cold the first day and then heat. Surgery is indicated if a liver or spleen hematoma ruptures or if the hematoma suppurates.