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Henry I. Born in 1068 in Selby (?); died Dec. 1, 1135, in Lyons-la Forêt. Became king in 1100. Youngest son of King William I the Conqueror. He seized power illegally, winning over the English barons with the promise to guarantee the observance of their feudal rights and privileges. With the support of the minor knights, the growing cities, and the free peasantry, Henry I strengthened the state apparatus substantially. The royal curia—a central administrative body—took shape under his reign. Henry I came into conflict with the Roman pope over the issue of the right to appoint English bishops. By the agreement of 1107, the king retained the right to receive feudal allegiance from the English prelates as they assumed possession of the church lands.
Henry II. Born Mar. 5, 1133, in Le Mans; died July 6, 1189, in Chinon. Became king in 1154. First of the Plantagenet dynasty.
Along with his English holdings, Henry II ruled over vast possessions in France. Becoming king after protracted feudal discord (1135-53), Henry II restored peace and achieved the dissolution of the mercenary bands of the barons. Relying on the support of the knights, town dwellers, and upper elements of the free peasantry, he carried out a policy of further strengthening the centralized feudal state in England. His judicial reform substantially expanded the powers of the royal courts at the expense of the feudal curiae, and it introduced investigation through jurors in these courts. After the reform any free individual could appeal to the royal court for a fee. His attempt to subordinate the church courts to the royal power by means of the so-called Constitutions of Clarendon (1164) was not crowned by success. As a result of military reform, the substitution of cash payments—the so-called shield money—for knightly service became widespread; furthermore, all free men were obliged to have weapons in order to serve in the king’s forces if needed. The foundations of the entire judicial and administrative system of the English feudal state were laid under Henry II: the royal curia was divided into the supreme royal court and the exchequer, and statewide English feudal law began to take shape. As progressive as his reforms were, they were purely feudal in nature; drawing a sharp distinction between freemen and serfs, they consolidated the rightless status of the latter. The conquest of Ireland began in 1169 under Henry II.
REFERENCEBoussard, J. Le Gouvernement d’Henry II, Plantagenet. Paris, 1956.
Henry III attempted to rule the country, relying on the support of foreign adventurist feudal lords and an alliance with the Roman curia. In the late 1250’s the discontent of the barons with this policy found support among the minor knights, town dwellers, and prosperous peasantry. In 1258, Henry III was forced to confirm the Provisions of Oxford, which established a baronial oligarchy in the country; he subsequently confirmed the Provisions of Westminster, which restricted the arbitrary rule of the barons to some extent. His refusal to observe the Provisions of Oxford led to a civil war (1263-67). In 1264, Simon de Montfort routed the royal forces and took Henry III prisoner. After the king’s supporters smashed the forces of the opposition and Montfort perished in August 1265, Henry Ill’s rights were completely restored in 1266. However, the growing role of the knights and the cities compelled Henry III and the barons to adopt the practice of convening the Parliament.
REFERENCEGutnova, E. V. Vozniknovenie angliiskogo parlamenta. Moscow, 1960.
Henry IV supported Richard II’s coup d’etat in 1397 but was banished shortly thereafter. In 1399 he made a landing in England and headed the mutiny of the magnates of north England against Richard II. After Richard renounced the throne, Henry was proclaimed king. His reign passed in a struggle against the revolts of the large feudal lords, the uprisings in Wales, and the forays of the Scots. He skillfully divided his enemies, seeking the support of the petty nobility and prosperous townspeople and the help of Parliament, the rights of which were expanded substantially. He suppressed democratic movements harshly; in 1401 he implemented a statute directed against the Lollards.
Henry V attempted to achieve a reconciliation with the feudal nobility, returning to them the holdings confiscated by Henry IV. In 1414 he suppressed an uprising of the Lollards. Renewing the Hundred Years’ War, he inflicted a decisive defeat on the French in 1415 at Agincourt; shortly thereafter, he captured northern France, including Paris. He was recognized as the heir of the French king Charles VI and as the regent of France.
He assumed the throne as a child of nine months. Weak-willed and subject to increasingly protracted fits of madness, he was a plaything in the hands of the frequently changing regents and favorites. In 1461, in the course of the War of the Roses, he was overthrown by King Edward IV York. After a temporary restoration (from Oct. 3, 1470 to Apr. 11, 1471), Henry VI was overthrown for a second time and killed in the Tower.
Henry VII ascended the throne as the Lancaster candidate after the Lancaster victory over Richard III in the battle at Bosworth (Aug. 22, 1485), which marked the end of the War of the Roses. He implemented a number of measures limiting the power of the feudal aristocracy, including the confiscation of landholdings, the dissolution of household military bodies, and the establishment of extraordinary courts to investigate cases of conspiracy (the Star Chamber, begun in 1487). In the interests of the nascent bourgeoisie, he promoted the development of navigation and foreign trade. The foundations of absolutism were established during the reign of Henry VII.
During his reign, Henry VIII relied on the support of a narrow circle of favorites (T. Wolsey and later T. Cromwell and T. Cranmer). The Reformation was carried out in his reign; he viewed it as an important means to strengthen absolutism and the royal treasury. The occasion for the Reformation was the pope’s refusal to confirm Henry VIII’s divorce from Catherine of Aragon and his marriage to Anne Boleyn. In 1534, after the break with the pope, Parliament proclaimed him head of the English (Anglican) Church, which retained the Catholic rites. T. More (lord chancellor from 1529), who opposed the Reformation, was executed in 1535. The secularization of the monasteries was carried out in 1536 and 1539; their lands passed to the new nobility. Resistance to this policy, particularly in the north (“The Pilgrimage of Grace”), was harshly suppressed. At the end of his reign, the enormous expenditures of the court and the wars against France and Scotland brought finances to a state of complete disorder. In connection with the expropriation of the peasantry, which intensified as a result of the secularization, Henry VIII promulgated statutes against vagrants and beggars. Although his policies corresponded in some measure to the interests of the new nobility and growing bourgeoisie, his class support was the feudal nobility. (In particular, Henry VIII’s attempts to preserve the old feudal structure of landholding in an era of incipient agrarian revolution were reflected in his measures to restrict enclosures.)
REFERENCESMackie, J. D. The Earlier Tudors: 1485-1558. Oxford, 1952.
Scarisbrick, J. J. Henry VIII. London, 1969.
V. F. SEMENOV
(Henri), name of several French kings, the most important being Henry II, Henry III, and Henry IV.
Henry II. Born Mar. 31, 1519, in Saint Germain-en-Laye; died July 10, 1559, in Paris. Became king in 1547. Member of the Valois dynasty.
In 1533, Henry married Catherine de Médicis. During his reign he was under the influence of his constable, Anne de Montmorency, especially in the field of foreign policy. Henry cruelly persecuted the Huguenots. He established a special court for them in 1547, the chambre ardente. In 1559 he issued an edict that required the death penalty for the heretics. Acting in alliance with the German Protestant princes, Henry led the struggle against Emperor Charles V. In 1552 he took the bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun. In 1558 he won Calais from the English. In 1559, Henry signed the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis, which ended the Italian wars. He was fatally wounded in a tournament.
REFERENCENoell, H. Henri II …. Paris, 1944.
Henry III. Born Sept. 19, 1551, in Fontainebleau; died Aug. 2, 1589, in St. Cloud. Became king in 1574. The last representative of the Valois dynasty.
In 1573, Henry was elected to the Polish throne; but upon learning of the death of his brother, the French king Charles IX, he secretly fled Poland in order to occupy the French throne. Henry III ruled during the height of the religious wars. He fought against the Huguenots, who were headed by Henri de Navarre, as well as against the Guises, who led the Catholic League and were pretenders to the throne in consequence of his own childlessness. The League of Paris, a union which enjoyed decisive influence within the Catholic League from 1585 to 1596, organized an uprising in Paris in May 1588. On the Day of the Barricades (May 12), Henry III fled to Chartres. In the same year, following the murder of the duke of Guise and the duke’s brother, the cardinal of Lorraine, at the order of Henry III, Henry was deposed by the democratic wing of the League of Paris. Henry III came to terms with Henri de Navarre and they both laid siege to Paris. During this siege Henry III was killed by Jacques Clément, a friar sent by the league.
WORKSLettres d’Henri III, vols. 1-2. Paris, 1959-65.
REFERENCESErlanger, P. Henri III. Paris .
Champion, P. Henri III [vols. 1-2]. Paris [1943-51].
A. D. LIUBLINSKAIA
Henry IV. Born Dec. 13, 1553, in Pau, Béarn; died May 14, 1610, in Paris. Became king of France in 1589; actual rule began in 1594. First member of the Bourbon dynasty. King of Navarre (Henri de Navarre) beginning in 1562.
During the religious wars, Henry IV was the leader of the Huguenots. In 1593 he adopted Catholicism and entered Paris. By the Edict of Nantes of 1598, he granted to the Huguenots freedom of conscience and many privileges. Henry’s policy facilitated the consolidation of absolutism: the Estates General ceased to be called, the authority of provincial assemblies was restricted, the scope of the bureaucratic apparatus grew, and bureaucrats won official confirmation of their right to inherit and sell posts (paulette). Henry IV stripped the governors of a significant portion of their civil authority; at the same time, he increased the powers accorded to the governors-general and to the provincial intendants, who were beginning to play a noticeable role. In the field of economics, Henry IV carried out a protectionist policy: he encouraged the development of French manufacturing and introduced a protective tariff (1599); during his reign efforts were made to improve roads, construct canals, and so forth. In 1604 the colonization of Canada by the French was begun. Henry’s government canceled the tax arrears of the peasants and lowered the taille; but at the same time indirect taxes on salt, wine, and other products were increased. Henry IV was a major organizer of alliances against the Hapsburgs and directed the preparations for war against them. He was killed by the Catholic fanatic Ravaillac.
REFERENCESMosina, Z. “Absoliutizm v politike Genrikha IV.” Istorik-marksist, 1938, book 2.
Pykhteev, B. “Meropriiatiia Genrikha IV po razvitiiu sel’skogo khoziaistva vo Frantsii.” Uch. zap. Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo in-ta, 1940, vol. 26.
De Vaissière, P. Henri IV. Paris .
Ritter, R. Henri IV, lui-même: L’Homme. Paris .
A. D. LIUBLINSKAIA
Several sovereigns in the German kingdom and the Holy Roman Empire, the most important among them being Henry I, Henry III, Henry VI, and Henry VII.
Henry I. Born about 876; died July 2, 936, in Memleben, Saxony. Became king in 919; founder of the Saxon dynasty.
Henry was a Saxon duke from the Liudolfing family. After beginning his reign with a policy of concessions to the dukes, a policy dictated by their growing strength, Henry gradually set about subjugating them. He brought Lotharingia, which had recently been lost to the crown, back into the German kingdom (925). In order to repel Hungarian raids, he built a number of fortified towns and created a strong cavalry. He won a victory over the Hungarians at Riade on the river Unstrut (933). Through his military campaigns of 928-929, Heinrich began the seizure of the lands of the Polabian Slavs. The policies of Henry I prepared the way for a significant strengthening of royal authority under his son and successor Otto I.
REFERENCEBartmuss, H. J. Die Geburt des ersten deutschen Staates. Berlin, 1966.
Henry III. Born Oct. 28, 1017; died Oct. 5, 1056. Became king in 1039, emperor in 1046. A member of the Franconian dynasty; son of Conrad II.
Henry III relied for his power upon the ministeriales and the knights. During a campaign in Italy (1046-47), he had the pope, his rival, deposed. Subsequently, he repeatedly designated candidates for the papal see. Nonetheless, Henry’s protection of the Cluny church reform prepared the ground for a subsequent strengthening of papal authority. Henry brought Bohemia and Hungary into a dependent position with respect to the empire; he compelled the duke of Lotharingia to submit to his authority.
Henry IV. Born Nov. 11, 1050; died Aug. 7, 1106, in Liège. Became king in 1056, emperor in 1084. The son of Henry III.
During the minority of Henry IV, the princes grew strong in Germany and plundered the possessions of the crown. Henry’s measures to strengthen royal authority in Saxony gave rise to the Saxon rebellion of 1073-75, which was suppressed with difficulty. His desire to preserve for himself the right of clerical investiture in Germany and in northern Italy led Henry IV into a confrontation with Pope Gregory VII in 1076 and touched off the long investiture struggle. After being excommunicated by the pope and deposed, Henry IV was compelled by the princes to go to do penance before the pope at Canossa (January 1077). After being again excommunicated from the church (1080), Henry captured Rome in 1084 and was crowned by his protégé, the antipope Clement III; however, he retreated before the allies of Gregory VII, the Normans of southern Italy. Not the pope’s alliances with German princes, nor an unsuccessful third campaign in Italy (1090-97), nor the rebellion of his own sons against him, nor even his being taken prisoner could force the wily and energetic Henry IV to admit to defeat. He succeeded in escaping from captivity. He died while preparing a new war against his son.
As a whole, Henry’s attempt to bolster the authority of the crown by strengthening the royal domains and by reliance on the ministeriales and, to a certain extent, on the cities ended in complete failure as the feudal fragmentation of Germany grew.
REFERENCESSchmeidler, B. Kaiser Heinrich IV. Leipzig, 1927.
Stern, L., and H. Gericke. Deutschland von der Feudalepoche von der Mitte des 11 Jahrhunderts bis zur Mitte des 13 Jahrhunderts. Berlin, 1964.
While his father was still alive, Henry V drew close to his opponents, the pope and the German princes. After the death of Henry IV, he renewed the struggle against the papacy over investiture. This conflict ended in the compromise Concordat of Worms (1122). With the death of Henry V, the Franconian dynasty ended.
Henry VI. Born 1165, in Nijmegen; died Sept. 28, 1197, in Messina. Became king in 1190, emperor in 1191. Member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. Son of Frederick I Barbarossa. By his marriage to Constance, the daughter and successor of the Sicilian king (1186), Henry added the Sicilian realm to the possessions of the Hohenstaufens; however, his authority there was confirmed only in 1194.
Henry VII. Born about 1275; died Aug. 24, 1313, in Buonconvento, near Siena. Became king in 1308, emperor in 1312. First member of the Luxemburg dynasty. In 1310, Henry VII obtained the Bohemian throne for his son John. In the same year he invaded Italy in an unsuccessful attempt to force that land once again into subordination to the empire.
the unit of self-inductance and mutual inductance in the International System of Units and the Meter-kilogram-second-ampere System of Units. Named in honor of the American scientist J. Henry, it is abbreviated H in international usage; 1 henry is equivalent to the inductance of an electrical circuit that excites a magnetic flux of 1 weber when a direct current of 1 ampere flows through it. The henry may also be defined as the inductance of an electrical circuit in which an electromotive force of 1 volt is induced when the current in the circuit varies uniformly at a rate of 1 ampere per second. In practice, fractional units are often used: the millihenry (10−3H) and the microhenry (10−6H). Henries per meter is the unit of absolute magnetic permeability equal to the absolute magnetic permeability of a medium in which a magnetic inductance of 1 tesla is created in a magnetic field having a strength of 1 ampere per meter.