Clinton, Sir Henry

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Clinton, Sir Henry,

1738?–1795, British general in the American Revolution, b. Newfoundland; son of George ClintonClinton, George,
c.1686–1761, colonial governor of New York (1743–53), b. England; father of Sir Henry Clinton. He entered (1708) the British navy and rose to the rank of admiral in 1747.
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 (1686?–1761). He was an officer in the New York militia and then in the Coldstream Guards. He had distinguished himself in America by service in the French and Indian WarsFrench and Indian Wars,
1689–1763, the name given by American historians to the North American colonial wars between Great Britain and France in the late 17th and the 18th cent.
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 long before he arrived in Boston in 1775 with the reinforcements for Gov. Thomas GageGage, Thomas,
1721–87, English general in North America. He came to America (1754) with Gen. Edward Braddock and took part in the ill-fated expedition against Fort Duquesne (1755).
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Clinton took part in the battle of Bunker Hill (1775), commanded (1776) an unsuccessful expedition against Charleston, S.C., and served under Sir William HoweHowe, William Howe, 5th Viscount,
1729–1814, English general in the American Revolution; younger brother of Admiral Richard Howe.
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 in the battle of Long Island, in the occupation of New York, and at White Plains. In 1777 he headed the British occupation of Rhode Island. When Howe moved on Philadelphia, Clinton assumed the command of New York. He did not fulfill the part expected of the New York command in the British strategy that resulted in defeat with the Saratoga campaignSaratoga campaign,
June–Oct., 1777, of the American Revolution. Lord George Germain and John Burgoyne were the chief authors of a plan to end the American Revolution by splitting the colonies along the Hudson River.
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; he advanced up the Hudson valley, capturing the patriot strongholds of Fort Clinton (strongly defended by James Clinton) and Fort Montgomery, but after burning Kingston he turned back.

Sir Henry (knighted 1777) succeeded Howe in the supreme command in America in 1778. Acting on orders from London, he evacuated Philadelphia and, after Washington's attempt to halt him failed (see Monmouth, battle ofMonmouth, battle of,
in the American Revolution, fought June 28, 1778, near the village of Monmouth Courthouse (now Freehold, N.J.). Gen. George Washington chose this location to attack the British troops, who were retreating from Philadelphia to New York City. Gen.
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), he reached New York. He complained that Lord George GermainGermain, George Sackville, 1st Viscount Sackville
, 1716–85, British soldier and statesman. He was known as Lord George Sackville until 1770, when under the terms of a will he took the name Germain.
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 did not answer his requests for supplies and twice tried to resign. In Dec., 1779, he left Baron KnyphausenKnyphausen, Wilhelm, Baron von
, 1716–1800, German general in British service in the American Revolution. He served in the army of Frederick the Great before coming to America with the Hessian troops in 1776.
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 in command in New York and redeemed his failure of 1776 by capturing Charleston (1780). After placing CornwallisCornwallis, Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess
, 1738–1805, English general and statesman. He was commissioned an ensign in the British army in 1756 and saw service in Europe in the Seven Years War.
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 in command in the Carolinas, he returned to New York. In 1781, expecting Washington to attack, he remained in New York too long and failed to aid Cornwallis in the Yorktown campaignYorktown campaign,
1781, the closing military operations of the American Revolution. After his unsuccessful Carolina campaign General Cornwallis moved into Virginia to join British forces there.
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. He resigned and was succeeded by Sir Guy CarletonCarleton, Guy, 1st Baron Dorchester,
1724–1808, governor of Quebec and British commander during the American Revolution.
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Clinton later served (1794–95) governor of Gibraltar. He recorded his campaigns from 1775 to 1782 (published in 1954 as The American Rebellion, ed. by W. B. Willcox). Cornwallis criticized his account, and the controversy between the two continued until Clinton's death.


See W. B. Willcox, Portrait of a General (1964).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Turncoat does an excellent job utilizing both published documents and manuscripts, particularly from Sir Henry Clinton's papers, to make the case that, while Arnold was a conflicted character whose bravery and charisma were at odds with his vanity and self-serving nature, he did personally believe in the rectitude of his actions from 1779 to 1781.
Florida A&M University (FAMU) Interim Provost Rodner Wright has announced HENRY CLINTON TALLEY V, Ph.D., as the new dean of the School of Nursing, effective January 17.
There, through a series of feints and false dispatches intercepted by British regulars, the commander in chief of the British forces in North America, Lord Henry Clinton was deceived into thinking the Continental Army and the French would lay siege on New York, then in British hands.
Among students who were killed were 23-year-old Second-Lieutenant Henry Clinton Laslett, MC, of the Royal Field Artillery; dental student Second-Lieutenant William Holdcroft; 21-year-old Military Medal holder Rifleman Robert Curwen, of the KLR, whose father was a police officer, and Second-Lieutenant Edmund Flenley, also 21 and the holder of a senior city scholarship, who died in April 1917 serving with the King's Liverpool Regiment.
In 1776 his defense of a small fort on Sullivan's Island (later named Fort Moultrie in his honor) prevented Sir Henry Clinton and Sir Peter Parker from taking Charleston, South Carolina.
Regular extracts appear from the writings of Lieutenant-General Henry Clinton and others, along with occasional drawings and maps.
The indecisiveness and sensitive egos of the three primary British actors--Gen Henry Clinton, Gen Charles Cornwallis, and Adm Marriot Arbuthnot--were particularly helpful to the American cause.
On the British side, General William Howe receives low marks, while Generals Henry Clinton and Charles Cornwallis emerge as the most adroit commanders in the war.
British Major General Henry Clinton offered a pardon to induce a change of heart among the Americans, but it failed.
Cornwallis, confident that General Henry Clinton would arrive with reinforcements from New York, remained within Yorktown's inadequate defences.
Benedict Arnold Corin Redgrave Peggy Yvonne Woods Hannah Kate Kearney-Patch Sir Henry Clinton Nicholas Kepros John Andre Paul Anthony McGrane Stephen Kemble/ Van Wart Thomas M.
Admiral George Clinton, was colonial Governor of New York during the 1740s -- and father of General Sir Henry Clinton, Commander in Chief of the British Army in North America during the later years of the War for Independence.