Their topics include Alkhan and Hephthalite
coinage, the last Bactrian kings, copper coinage and the Sasanian monetary heritage, the Chionite and Kidarite periods as seen from Samarkand, new data for a tentative historical reassessment of late historic cultural landscape in Swat, archaeological and art historical evidence from North-West Pakistan for the Shahi period, and archaeological traces of early Turks in Transoxiana.
Regional interaction in Central Asia and Northwest India in the Kidarite and Hephthalite periods.
On the other hand, if it were true that the Hephthalites or Huna or one of their associated tribes had been based also in the Kailash region (cf.
reveals the treasures of Afrasiyab--element (5)--all of which reference, in Czegledy's hypothesis, Bahrain Cobin's Mihranid homeland of Padashkhwar and the extensive wealth he gained through his victories against the Hephthalite
Turks and his conquests beyond the Oxus (in particular Peykand, a settlement associated with the "brazen fortress" of Afrasiyab).
Muslim to defeat the Hephthalite
rebel Nezak Tarkhan in the year 91 of the Hijra (710 A.D.), as mentioned by the historian Tabari."
(7) The Hephthalites
, a third group of Iranian Huns who ruled in Bactria towards the end of the 5th century, appeared to have never crossed into the area south of Hindu Kush.
The Great Wall of Gorgan and its associated forts provide a unique testimony to the engineering skills and military organization of the Sassanian Empire, which, in its heyday, was involved in a series of wars at its northern frontiers, first against the Hephthalites
or White Huns and later against the Turks.
(199) A great surge in Sasanian "commerce" with China seems to date to the period of the fifth and sixth centuries, when Sasanian relations with the Hephthalites
encouraged commerce by sending Sasanian money into Central Eurasia, resulting in increased numbers of Sasanian coins in China.
Since the 2nd millennium BC, regions now inhabited by Pashtoons have seen invasions and migrations, including by Indo-Iranians, Iranian peoples, Indo-Aryans, Medes, Persians, Mauryas, Scythians, Kushans, Hephthalites
, Greeks, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, he added.
and was later used by the Kushans, Hephthalites
, Western Turks, and other peoples.
Chapter 4, "The Age of Attila the Hun," discusses the Huns in Europe, the Western and Eastern Roman Empires, the early Germanic kingdoms, the Sasanids, the Hephthalites
, the fall of the Han Chinese, the rise of Jin and Toba Wei, Puyo and Koguryo, and Japan.
101) places the apogee of Sogdian commerce in the sixth to eighth centuries, following a series of nomadic incursions (Huns, Kidarites, Hephthalites