The Great Wall of Gorgan and its associated forts provide a unique testimony to the engineering skills and military organization of the Sassanian Empire, which, in its heyday, was involved in a series of wars at its northern frontiers, first against the Hephthalites
or White Huns and later against the Turks.
199) A great surge in Sasanian "commerce" with China seems to date to the period of the fifth and sixth centuries, when Sasanian relations with the Hephthalites
encouraged commerce by sending Sasanian money into Central Eurasia, resulting in increased numbers of Sasanian coins in China.
On the other hand, if it were true that the Hephthalites or Huna or one of their associated tribes had been based also in the Kailash region (cf.
the Western Turks had moved into the areas west of the Altai and north of the Tienshan and further west into Western Turkestan and into Afghanistan, where they replaced the Hephthalites, while the Eastern Turks mainly settled in present-day Mongolia and areas further to the south and east.
In 445 CE, the Tuyuhun (H aza) raided Khotan and some regions down the Indus, where they entered into a political alliance with the Hephthalites or Huna of Gandhara.
the Hematala (referring to the Hephthalites in western Badakhshan, cf.
Since the 2nd millennium BC, regions now inhabited by Pashtoons have seen invasions and migrations, including by Indo-Iranians, Iranian peoples, Indo-Aryans, Medes, Persians, Mauryas, Scythians, Kushans, Hephthalites
, Greeks, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, he added.
and was later used by the Kushans, Hephthalites
, Western Turks, and other peoples.
Chapter 4, "The Age of Attila the Hun," discusses the Huns in Europe, the Western and Eastern Roman Empires, the early Germanic kingdoms, the Sasanids, the Hephthalites
, the fall of the Han Chinese, the rise of Jin and Toba Wei, Puyo and Koguryo, and Japan.
437), Kidarite (mid-fifth century), Hephthalite
(early--mid-sixth century), and Turk rule.