Heraclea


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Heraclea

(hĕrəklē`ə), ancient Greek city, in Lucania, S Italy, not far from the Gulf of Tarentum (Taranto). There Pyrrhus defeated the Romans in 280 B.C. Bronze tablets giving Roman municipal laws were found nearby.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Heraclea

 

the name of more than 30 ancient Greek and Roman cities:

(1) Heraclea Pontica (present-day Ereğli, in the Zonguldak district of Turkey), a wealthy maritime city in Bithynia. It was founded by Greek colonists about 550 B.C. and became a major economic and commercial center on the southern coast of the Pontus Euxinus. Its loss of predominance in the straits and the devastation of the surrounding area by the Galatians in the last part of the third century B.C. led to its decline. In 64 B.C., Heraclea was incorporated into the Roman province of Pontus and Bithynia.

(2) Heraclea at Latmus (present-day Kapikiri in Turkey), a city on the Ionian coast of Asia Minor at the base of Mount Latmus (formerly known as Heraclea-Latmus). At the beginning of the second century B.C., Heraclea achieved great economic importance. During the Roman period, it was part of the province of Asia, and in the sixth century it was the leading city of the Byzantine province of Caria. The remains of Hellenistic walls 6 km long are still preserved there.

(3) Heraclea in southern Italy (present-day Policoro). In 280 B.C., a major battle of the war between Rome and Tarentum took place nearby. The mercenary army of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus and ally of Tarentum (23,000 men and 20 military elephants) delivered a crushing blow to the Roman legions of consul Publius Valerius Laevinus. The outcome of the battle was decided by the elephants, which the Romans encountered for the first time there. After the victory at Heraclea, many cities of southern Italy went over to Pyrrhus.

REFERENCES

Memnon. “O Geraklee.” Vestnik drevnei istorii, 1951, no. 1.
Apel, H. Die Tyrannis von Heraklea. Halle, 1910.
Krischen, F. Die Befestigungen von Herakleia am Latmos. Berlin-Leipzig, 1922.

T. M. SHEPUNOVA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Heraclea

any of several ancient Greek colonies. The most famous is the S Italian site where Pyrrhus of Epirus defeated the Romans (280 bc)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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** Macedonian sellers are the second most polite sellers in the region, according to a survey conducted by the consulting company Heraclea. Best-ranked are the sellers in Slovenia.
C11/236 Family Collection sites Mugla; Milas, Kapikiri Village, Heraclea Archaic City Ruins, on the rocks and soil bank near the roadside, 35 m Aytoniaceae Mugla; Milas, Kapikiri Village, Heraclea Archaic City Ruins, on the rocks and soil ground, 70 m Aydin; Kocarli, Mersin Belen road 5th km, on the road in stream bank, 696 m Porellaceae Aydin; Kocarli, Mersin Belen road 5th km, on the road in stream bank, 696 m Aydin; Kocarli, Mersin Belen road 5th km, on the road in stream bank, 696 m Ricciaceae Izmir; Selcuk, Zeytinkoy Village, Kazangol Lake, 3 m Targioniaceae Mugla; Milas, Kapikiri Village, Heraclea Archaic City Ruins, on the rocks and soil bank near the roadside, 30 m Table 2.
There are also several large mosques (around 30 per cent of the population is Muslim) and the remains of an ancient Greek city, known as Heraclea.
He considers that the more promising philosophical stories and philosophical nuances are to be found within 'fringe' literary genres, such as those exemplified through the letters of Chion of Heraclea or through Antonius Diogenes' fragmentary Wonders Beyond Thule.
The situation is named after King Pyrrhus of Epirus, who suffered irreplaceable casualties after defeating the Romans at Heraclea in 280 BC and Asculum in 279 BC.
According to Pliny the Elder, the great Greek painter Zeuxis, born in Heraclea in southern Italy in the latter 5th century BC, for example, is said to have painted a bunch of grapes so realistic that a flock of birds flew down to eat them but could only peck at the canvas.
The phrase stems from Greek King Pyrrhus of Epirus, whose army suffered great casualties in defeating the Romans at Heraclea and Asculum during the Pyrrhic War in 280-279 B.C.