Heraclitus

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Heraclitus

(hĕrəklī`təs), c.535–c.475 B.C., Greek philosopher of Ephesus, of noble birth. According to Heraclitus, there was no permanent reality except the reality of change; permanence was an illusion of the senses. He taught that all things carried with them their opposites, that death was potential in life, that being and not-being were part of every whole—therefore, the only possible real state was the transitional one of becoming. He believed fire to be the underlying substance of the universe and all other elements transformations of it. He identified life and reason with fire and believed that no man had a soul of his own, that each shared in a universal soul-fire.

Bibliography

See his Cosmic Fragments, ed. by G. S. Kirk (1954, repr. 1962); study by G. O. Griffith (1977).

Heraclitus

(dreams)

Heraclitus (c. 540–c. 480 B.C.E.) was one of the earliest Western philosophers, best known for his assertion that the world is in constant change. Historians often refer to all Greek philosophers who lived prior Socrates as the pre-Socratics, and Heraclitus is included in this group. The pre-Socratics, who as a group were active from approximately 600 to 400 B.C.E., attempted to find universal principles to explain the whole of nature.

According to their philosophy, the apparent chaos of the world conceals a permanent and intelligible order, which can be accounted for by universal causes operating within nature itself and discoverable through human reason. They openly disagreed with the content and the method of mythology, maintaining that natural processes were no longer to be at the mercy of gods with human passions and unpredictable intentions. The pre-Socratics were skeptical about dreams, and they usually took a more speculative view of them.

Heraclitus, for instance, detached the phenomenon of dreaming from the supernatural, declaring it to be a universal human trait and maintaining that each individual retreats into a world of his own during sleep. According to Heraclitus, dreams have no special meaning and can be regarded as the carryover into sleep of the cares and intentions of waking life.

Heraclitus maintained that knowledge achieved during sleep is inferior to waking knowledge, since the world that the dreamer sees is distinguished by an incommunicable privacy and by a surrealistic character. The dreamer is cut off from communication via the senses with the outside world and does not have the power to perceive things in a coherent manner. Thus, the dream world is very different from the waking world, although they resemble each other.

Heraclitus

the weeping philosopher; melancholic personality. [Gk. Phil.: Hall, 98]
See: Crying

Heraclitus

(535–475 B.C.) “Weeping Philosopher”; grieved over man’s folly. [Gk. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 1146]

Heraclitus

?535--?475 bc, Greek philosopher, who held that fire is the primordial substance of the universe and that all things are in perpetual flux
References in periodicals archive ?
It is obvious that Freud anticipated, like Heracleitus and Blake, the two tendencies observed by chaos theory: the constructive-anagenetic tendency, and the catagenetic-destructive tendency.
The Heracleitus Fragment 122 contains the single word [phrase omitted] (angchibasie), which is traditionally translated as "Approximation" and is related to Angchibathos (angchi, bathus) indicating a close approximation to or distance from the sea shore.
I repaired to Moral Sciences, as philosophy was then called (and which included Plato, Aristotle and the pre-Socratics, of whom cryptic Heracleitus was my terse favourite).
He objected to the continuum in which I cast the narrative, in which 'everything flows'--as Heracleitus put it--and myth melts into history, literature into philosophy, art into propaganda.
The first sequence in the collection, "Eleatic Electric," is in the voice of a gnomic philosopher, a sort of Zeno or Heracleitus, transported into our own time to deliver paradoxes to a deconstructed world.
The ancient Greek philosopher Heracleitus said, "Nothing endures but change.
It is impossible to step twice in the same river" are the words of Heracleitus [sic], nor is it possible to lay hold twice of any mortal substance in a permanent state; by the suddenness and swiftness of the change in it there "comes dispersion and, at another time, a gathering together"; or, rather, nor at another time nor later, but at the same instant it both settles into its place and forsakes its place; "it is coming and going.
Books I and II establish the main principles of the atomic universe, refute the rival theories of the pre-Socratic cosmic philosophers Heracleitus, Empedocles, and Anaxagoras, and covertly attack the Stoics, a school of moralists rivaling that of Epicurus.
If Logos, figured through language as "the Word," represents the all-encompassing unifying order of the world in metaphysics since Heracleitus, then Brett Lund's exhibition title "ProtoLogos" would seem to suggest a breathtakingly ambitious attempt to step back even further in the mystical fog of being's origins to grope something more embryonic, primordial, and pelvic at work in the universe.
Such questions, and the many quotations from Heracleitus, remind us that this is Heidegger's pre-Socratic Greece just as much as Oedipus'.
This belief has alchemical resonances, going back to the ancient and characteristically obscure dictum of Heracleitus that 'the way up and the way down are one'.