hermandad

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hermandad

(ārmändäth`) [Span.,=brotherhood], a peacekeeping association of armed individuals, a characteristic of municipal life in medieval Spain, especially in Castile. Hermandades are known to have existed as early as the 12th cent. Since the medieval Spanish kings were for the most part unable to offer adequate protection, protective municipal leagues against bandits and other rural criminals, as well as against the lawless nobility, began to emerge in the 12th cent. These bodies, at first temporary but eventually permanent, took into custody and summarily tried suspects. Among the most powerful was the league of N Castilian and Basque ports, the Hermandad de las Marismas, formed in 1296 to safeguard domestic and foreign trade. The crown had limited success in regulating the activities of the hermandades. As one of their first acts after the war of succession, Ferdinand and Isabella established the centrally organized and efficient Holy Hermandad (Span. Santa Hermandad), which suppressed the original hermandades. Especially effective in rural Castile, this combined rural constabulary and judicial tribunal ensured personal security and public order, serving the additional purpose of reasserting royal jurisdiction and curbing aristocratic power; middle- and lower-class taxpayers assumed the cost. Each town provided archers and militia, and the tribunals consisted of unpaid local judges (alcaldes). Ferdinand expanded the Santa Hermandad to Aragon. A supreme council under the bishop of Cartagena as royal representative oversaw the entire organization. Although the Santa Hermandad soon achieved its purpose, the Spanish rulers, who had found it indispensable in fighting the Moors as well, kept the supreme council until 1498. Hermandades continued to serve as modest local police units until their suppression in 1835.

Hermandad

 

(literally, “brotherhood”), any of several medieval unions of Spanish towns and peasant communes.

Hermandades were founded as a means of self-defense during the wars with the Arabs and the feudal civil wars. Some hermandades were established to provide armed defense of their members’ rights and freedoms against the encroachments of the feudal lords; there also existed, however, hermandades formed by towns and feudal lords. The earliest known hermandad is that of Asturias, which was founded in 1115.

The hermandades frequently found themselves in conflict with the crown; more often, however, they were used by the Spanish kings in the kings’ struggles with the feudal lords. Hermandades became widespread during the 13th and 14th centuries and played an important role in the Reconquest. They enjoyed extensive rights and privileges and had their own administration and their own military units.

As the kings gained absolute power the hermandades lost their independence and became tools of the crown. In 1498 the right of self-rule was taken away from the Santa Hermandad, one of the most important of the unions; the role of this hermandad, which had been founded in 1476 and included towns and peasant com munes in Castile, Leon, and Asturias, was reduced to that of a rural constabulary. The Santa Hermandad was finally dissolved in 1835.

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Pero la Iglesia de la populosa ciudad de Cartago nada tenia que ver con las pequenas hermandades cristianas de los valles y aldeas de Frigia.
Kalof (1993) encontro en su estudio que, en comparacion con otras mujeres universitarias, las miembros de hermandades manifestaban actitudes mas estereotipadas sobre la aceptacion de la violencia interpersonal y la aceptacion de mitos sobre la violacion, tales como "a las mujeres les gusta que las fuercen para mantener relaciones sexuales", "las chicas agradables no son violadas", o "las victimas de violacion son promiscuas o tienen mala reputacion".
Los iniciados generalmente se agrupan un ordenes o hermandades alrededor de la figura de un maestro espiritual o sheikh, quien es considerado ti fundador y lider de cada hermandad particular.
En esta primera etapa, hasta el inicio de la Republica, la modalidad de asistencia y de servicio a los enfermos no se modifico en gran medida en los Hospitales Mayores, por haber estado a cargo de las Hermandades de Hermanos 24.
Asi se incluye la seccion Gobierno, que contiene la secretaria particular del prelado y la secretaria general de obispado, estableciendose dentro de esta ultima las siguientes series: registro de personal, expedientes de ordenes sagradas, cabildo catedral, oposiciones a curatos, seminario conciliar o diocesano, patronatos y capellanias, hermandades o cofradias, oratorios privados, misiones populares y clero regular; la seccion Justicia recoge pleitos matrimoniales, asuntos matrimoniales y autos apelados; la seccion Erario o Administracion General contiene documentos de mitra, patrimonio diocesano, colecturia, capellanias, obras pias de los santos lugares, el priorato de ermitas, las bulas de la Santa Cruzada, visitas y padrones parroquiales.
El hombre renacentista que habitaba en villas y ciudades busco prevenir las consecuencias de la enfermedad y la invalidez en el amparo que le ofrecian las organizaciones asistenciales creadas por los gremios, instituciones de las que ha hecho completo estudio el historiador Rumeu de Armas; los gremios dieron vida a Cofradias y Hermandades que facilitaban socorro economico a quienes la enfermedad impedia el ejercicio de su oficio, prestaban apoyo al impedido, a huerfanos y viudas y asimismo asistencia medica; sus ordenanzas, establecidas ante escribano, obligaban a los inscritos en las Cofradias a contribuir con cuotas de ingreso, que oscilaban entre 50 y 200 reales, y pagos mensuales de 4 a 6 reales.
Foreseeing and anticipating the reality of the unconscious, Oliveira Martins describes this period as an era of darkness in which worlds are shaken, the 'seio de um paul onde fermenta a vida', and from which the creative forces of nature erupt, producing ingenuous types who are nonetheless ephemeral in their beauty, such as El Cid, or institutions inspired by Christian solidarity such as the hermandades (brotherhoods) or behetrias (a kind of voluntary feudal contract in which peasants chose their lord).
Fundaron cofradias o hermandades religiosas exclusivamente africanas y celebraban la Semana Santa al lado de los demas espanoles.
En este tiempo, con la apremiante vastedad del nuevo milenio y con los resabios de 2000, cuando el cable ingreso en la intimidad de los bolivianos junto con la red internet, el culto de la literatura (en especial de la poesia) parece reducirse a determinadas hermandades de amigos y a un mercado furtivo.
(10) Areche se alinea con Gallarreta: apoya la extincion de las cofradias y sugiere ya medios concretos para lograrlo; propone que los corregidores y alcaldes mayores deberian pedir directamente a los curas los datos correspondientes de las cofradias y hermandades existentes en sus distritos, expresando cuales de estas asociaciones habian sido autorizadas por la Corona.
(3) Nos referimos a los estudios de religiosidad populary sus manifestaciones consideradas caracteristicas: hermandades y cofradias, romerias, santuarios, exvotos, etcetera.