Herophilus


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Herophilus

(hĭrŏf`ələs), fl. 300 B.C., Greek anatomist, called by some the father of scientific anatomy. A contemporary of Erasistratus at Alexandria, he made public dissections, comparing human and animal morphology. He studied the structure of the brain (which he regarded as the site of intelligence) and the spinal cord and distinguished between motor and sensory nerves. He also investigated the eye, the alimentary canal (he is credited with naming the duodenum), the reproductive organs, and the arteries and veins.

Herophilus

died ?280 bc, Greek anatomist in Alexandria. He was the first to distinguish sensory from motor nerves
References in periodicals archive ?
It can also address important student-related domains which are neglected in Pakistan.6814 The knowledge of Herophilus' wisdom can be employed in research perspectives to bring about a positive change in teaching strategies learning environment communication skills stress management and creative approaches in teaching institutions.
The professor and student relationship was increasingly preferred from the Early Hellenistic period onward because of the teaching techniques undertaken by the likes of Erasistratus and Herophilus. (20)
Aristotle believed it to be the heart; Herophilus of Chalcedon contended it was the brain (as proof, the anatomist and physician provided the primordial medical world with descriptions of the brain, spinal cord and nerves).
In order to attract scholars to the Mouseion, the Ptolemies offered scholars free board, lodging, servants, tax exemptions, and handsome salaries--for life.[51] They were able to continue such attractive perquisites because the Mouseion had been gifted with a handsome endowment by Ptolemy Soter in the institution's early years.[52] Some of the scholars that these measures enticed to the Mouseion were Strabo,[53] Zenodotus,[54] Aristophanes,[55] Eratosthenes,[56] Herophilus,[57] and Euclid.[58] Even Archimedes was a scholar of the Mouseion for a time.[59]
It was here that the practice of human dissection began: The physicians Herophilus and Erasistratus performed systematic dissections of the human body, observed many complex anatomical features, and developed a sophisticated theory of human physiology.
300 BCE: Herophilus of Chalcedon, one of the first Greek anatomists to publicly dissect human cadavers, determines arteries are thicker than veins and carry blood.
Fusillo emphasizes the influence of Herophilus of Alexandria, but as I will explain below, this is insufficient.
At the onset of the Hellenistic era (late 4th century BC), the cardiocentric consensus (heart as control centre) gradually receded, as influential Alexandrians such as Herophilus and Erasistratus brought evidence of an encephalocentric hegemonikon.
Herophilus of Alexandria and Erasistratus, his student, are the first to rely on dissection, in 300 BC.
In his book On eyes Herophilus prescribes an eye ointment for blindness which contained honey, crocodile dung, hyena bile and vitriolic copper (Von Staden 1994:424).
(2) Not allowed to dissect human bodies, Galen, who is considered the father of experimental physiology, derived his theories from observations of animals and, as Laqueur notes, from the dissections of Herophilus, a third century B.C.