Herschel


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Herschel

(hûr`shəl), family of distinguished English astronomers.

Sir William Herschel

Sir William Herschel, 1738–1822, born Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel, was a great pioneer in astronomy. Born in Hanover, Germany, the son of a musician, he early became a skilled performer on several instruments. He went to England in 1757 and worked as a musical conductor, organist, and teacher of music and studied mathematics and astronomy in his leisure time. He constructed telescopes and systematically explored the sky. On Mar. 13, 1781, he discovered a new planet later named Uranus. Because of this discovery he was appointed private astronomer to the king (1782), and was then able to devote his time to astronomy.

In 1789 at his home in Slough, Herschel erected his great telescope, with a 48-in. (122 cm) mirror and a focal length of 40 ft (12.2 m). Sir William discovered the sixth and seventh satellites of Saturn, determined the rotation period of Saturn, and studied the rotation of other planets. He concluded from the motions of double stars that they are held together by gravitation and that they revolve around a common center, thus confirming the universal nature of Newton's theory of gravitation. He cataloged over 800 double stars. His research in the field of nebulae suggested a possible beginning of new worlds from gaseous matter. Before this time only about 100 nebulae had been known; Sir William's catalog contained about 2,500. He concluded that the whole solar system is moving through space, and he was able to indicate the point toward which he believed it to be moving.

Bibliography

See biographies by J. B. Sidgwick (1955), A. Armitage (1962), and D. Crawford (1968); biography of William and Caroline by M. Hoskin (2011); study by M. A. Hoskin (1963).

Caroline Lucretia Herschel

Sir William's sister, Caroline Lucretia Herschel, 1750–1848, discovered eight comets and three nebulae and from 1772 collaborated with her brother. She revised (1798) John Flamsteed's catalog of stars and arranged her brother's catalog of star clusters and nebulae, for which she received the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1828.

Bibliography

See her autobiographies ed. by M. Hoskin (2003); M. C. Herschel, Memoirs and Correspondence of Caroline Herschel (1876).

Sir John Frederick William Herschel

Sir William's son, Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1792–1871, first distinguished himself as a mathematician at Cambridge but later turned to astronomy. He confirmed his father's observations of double stars, was able to add numbers of previously unrecognized pairs to those in the catalog, and extended his examination to include nebulae. He presented his results to the Royal Society in the form of a catalog of stars in 1833. In order to complete the survey of the heavens, he went to the Cape of Good Hope in 1834 and discovered and measured many previously unseen nebulae and clusters of stars in the southern sky.

Among his books are Outlines of Astronomy (1849) and A General Catalogue of Nebulas (1864). The latter was revised by Johan Dreyer as A New General Catalogue of Nebulas and Clusters of Stars (1888), and, generally known as the NGC (see New General CatalogNew General Catalog
(NGC), standard reference list of nebulae (see nebula). It is based on the General Catalog, published in 1864, which included 2,500 nebulae cataloged by William Herschel and an additional 2,500 cataloged by his son, John Herschel.
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), it still serves as a standard reference source. Sir John also made contributions to the field of photography. He was the first to use sodium thiosulfate (hypo) as a fixing agent, and he introduced the terms "positive image" and "negative image."

Bibliography

See his diaries and correspondence, Herschel at the Cape, ed. by D. S. Evans et al. (1969); biography by G. Buttman (tr. 1970); J. F. Herschel and S. S. Silvan, Aspects of the Life and Thought of Sir John Frederick Herschel (1981); B. and N. Warner, Maclear and Herschel (1984).

Herschel

(her -shĕl) See Mimas.

Herschel

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Herschel was the original designation of Uranus. It was named after Sir William Herschel, the astronomer who discovered Uranus. British astrologers persisted in using the name long after the rest of the world had switched to Uranus.

William Herschel was born Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel in Hanover, Germany, on November 15, 1738, and anglicized his name after he moved to England. His original profession was music, and music students were said to have flocked to him because of his talent, amiability, and teaching ability. He became interested in astronomy and took it up as a hobby; in time, it consumed him. He taught himself calculus and optics and, dissatisfied with the quality of existing telescopes, designed and built his own (later declared to be far better than any other in existence). He was creative and resourceful. Concerned about the welfare of his sister Caroline, whose brilliance was being wasted by parents who held very traditional ideas about the proper place of women, Herschel arranged for her to move to England and become his partner in the music (and later astronomy) business.

A modest individual, he brought Uranus to the attention of other astronomers with the announcement that he had discovered a new “comet.” When, after he had become famous, the king wished to honor him with an official appointment, he made certain that his sister also received a royal subsidy—making her the first woman in history to become a professional astronomer. Herschel also went into the telescope-manufacturing business: It was through a Herschel telescope that the first asteroid, Ceres, was discovered.

Sources:

Littmann, Mark. Planets Beyond: Discovering the Outer Solar System. 2d ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990.

Paul, Haydn. Revolutionary Spirit: Exploring the Astrological Uranus. Shaftesbury, Dorset, UK: Element Books, 1989.

Room, Adrian. Dictionary of Astronomical Names. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988.

Herschel

1. Caroline Lucretia. 1750--1848, British astronomer, born in Germany, noted for her catalogue of nebulae and star clusters: sister of Sir William Herschel
2. Sir John Frederick William. 1792--1871, British astronomer. He discovered and catalogued over 525 nebulae and star clusters
3. his father, Sir (Frederick) William, original name Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel. 1738--1822, British astronomer, born in Germany. He constructed a reflecting telescope, which led to his discovery of the planet Uranus (1781), two of its satellites, and two of the satellites of Saturn. He also discovered the motions of binary stars
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