Herschel Space Observatory


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Herschel Space Observatory

A spaceborne infrared and submillimeter imaging photometry and spectroscopy facility scheduled to be launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) in early 2007. It will enter space aboard the same launch vehicle, an Ariane-5 rocket, as the Planck mission. The observatory (known as Herschel for short) takes its name from the German-born English astronomer of the late 18th and early 19th century, Sir William Herschel. Originally designated the Far InfraRed and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST), it is one of the cornerstones of ESA's science program. Its purpose is to observe the ‘cool’ universe, operating in the far infrared and submillimeter region of the spectrum over an approximate range of 57–670 μm. Functioning at these wavelengths, it will have the potential to look back into the Universe's remote past, discovering the earliest epoch proto-galaxies, revealing cosmologically evolving AGN/starburst symbiosis, and unraveling the mechanisms governing the formation of stars and planetary systems. Herschel will carry a 3.5-m-diameter passively cooled telescope. The science instruments – two cameras/medium resolution spectrometers and a very high resolution heterodyne spectrometer – will be housed in a superfluid helium cryostat. From its eventual observing position far out in space in orbit around L2, one of the Lagrangian points of the Sun–Earth system situated 1.5 million km from the Earth, Herschel will be able to benefit from a low and stable background and full access to the frequency range in which it is to work.
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With the help of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory, the SOFIA team analyzed the stars and found that one gigantic star may a mass equal to about 100 Suns.
The researchers first detected this system with the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory. It appeared as a single red dot in the telescope's survey of the southern sky.
To learn more about the Kuiper Belt object 2007 [OR.sub.10], Andras Pal (Konkoly Observatory, Hungary) and others used data from NASA's repurposed Kepler space telescope along with archival observations from ESA's Herschel Space Observatory. By combining the object's radiated heat with its visible brightness and its rotational period, Pal explains, "one can unambiguously obtain the size of the object and the surface albedo as well."
This may be associated with observations of water vapor at Ceres by the Herschel space observatory that were reported in 2014.
Now, using the combined strengths of the Herschel Space Observatory and the Planck Satellite, astronomers have found objects in the distant universe, seen at a time when it was only 3,000,000,000 years old, which could be precursors of the clusters seen around us today.
Infrared Astronomy--Seeing the Heat from William Herschel to the Herschel Space Observatory is a college-level physics reference that astronomy holdings will find especially appealing because no math background is required in order to understand its science.
Infrared Astronomy -- Seeing the Heat: From William Herschel to the Herschel Space Observatory
Dr Gomez said: "The fact that Steve and I have been recognised for our research into cosmic dust is due to the incredible team involved in the Herschel Space Observatory and the significant Cardiff involvement in this amazing space mission." The academics join three previous winners from Cardiff University, Prof Matt Griffin (recognised in 2009, 2011 and 2014), Prof Peter Ade (twice in 2009) and Prof Walter Gear (2009).
But in 2011, a team using the Herschel Space Observatory, an infrared telescope operated by the European Space Agency, took a look at water vapor from the comet Hartley 2 and found that its deuterium signal perfectly matched Earth's water.
Sparky was identified with the help of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Herschel Space Observatory and the W.M.
Astronomers have used ESA's Herschel Space Observatory to find surprisingly large amounts of cold gas in some giant elliptical galaxies.