Duke

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Duke

 

among ancient Germanic peoples, a duke (Herzog) was the elected military leader of a tribe (Latin dux). In Western Europe during the early medieval period, duke meant a tribal prince; during the period of feudal fragmentation, the title signified a major landholder (in the hierarchy of military vassalage, the duke occupied the second most important place after the king). After feudal fragmentation was overcome, duke was one of the highest titles of nobility.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Herzogin Anna Amalia von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1739-1807): Musikliebhaberin und Mazenin: Anhang, Rekonstruktion der Musikaliensammlung, Handschriften und Briefe.
The lengthy title runs: Die uber die Bosheit triumphirende Unschuld das ist: Hirlanda eine gebohrne Herzogin von Britanien 7 gantzer Jahre als eine Dienstmagd unter dem Vieh, nachmalen wieder nach Hof berufen, doch durch Verlaumdung ihres Schwagers zum Scheiterhauf verdammt, von ihrem Sohn unbekannter Weisse errettet.
120 is found only at the Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek, Weimar, and is labeled as "Ascription Questioned." The New Grove lists two setting under "Organ Chorales, Fugues." There is no setting listed under either Doubtful or Lost Works.
Opera News chose Kalman's Die Herzogin von Chicago (Decca 466 057-2), conducted by Richard Bonynge and featuring baritone Brett Polegato, as one of the best complete opera recordings for 1999.