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(hē`sēəd, hĕs`–), fl. 8th cent.? B.C., Greek poet. He is thought to have lived later than Homer, but there is no absolute certainty about the dates of his life. Hesiod portrays himself as a Boeotian farmer. Little is known of his life, however, except for the few scant references he makes to his family's origin and to a quarrel over property with his brother. His most famous poem, the didactic Works and Days, is an epic of Greek rural life, filled with caustic advice for his brother and maxims for farmers to pursue. The "days" are days lucky or unlucky for particular tasks. Works and Days discourses on the mythic "five races" (i.e., the five ages) of humans; the Golden Age, ruled by Kronos, a period of serenity, peace, and eternal spring; the Silver Age, ruled by Zeus, less happy, but with luxury prevailing; the Bronze Age, a period of strife; the Heroic Age of the Trojan War; and the Iron Age, the present, when justice and piety had vanished. Hesiod's systemization, especially the idealized Golden Age, became deeply entrenched in the Western imagination and was expanded upon by Ovid. Also ascribed to him are the Theogony, a genealogy of the gods, and the first 56 lines of The Shield of Heracles. He gave his name to the Hesiodic school of poets, rivals of the Homeric school. Homer and Hesiod codified and preserved the myths of many of the Greek gods of the classical pantheon.


See translations by Lattimore (1959, 1991), and R. Lamberton, Hesiod (1988).



Dates of birth and death unknown. Ancient Greek poet of the eighth and seventh centuries B.C.

Hesiod’s didactic narrative poems Works and Days and Theogony (Genealogy of the Gods) have been preserved intact. They reflect the view of life held by the Greeks at the time when class society was taking form. In Works and Days, the social attitudes of working farmers, oppressed by the clan aristocracy, are voiced. This is the source of the poem’s denunciation of social inequality, its elevation of justice to the status of highest ethical principle, and the celebration of labor as the basis of life. Along with practical advice on agricultural matters, expressing the life experience and superstitions of rural people, the work contains vivid descriptions of nature, apt proverbs, and parables. The Theogony is a forerunner of ancient Greek philosophy, the first attempt by the Greeks at a systematization not only of the genealogy of the gods but of the origin of the world. The poem concludes with a genealogy of Greek heroines, setting the pattern for the genealogical trend in ancient Greek literature.


Hesiodi carmina. Edited by A. Rzach. Leipzig, 1913.
Théogonia. Text verified and translated by P. Mason. Paris, 1951.
Theogony. Edited by M. L. West. Oxford, 1966.
Fragmenta Hesiodea. Edited by R. Merkelbach and M. L. West. Oxford, 1967.
In Russian translation:
In Ellinskie poety v perevodakh V. V. Veresaeva. Moscow, 1963.


Trencsényi-Waldapfel, I. Gomer i Gesiod. Moscow, 1956. (Translated from Hungarian.)
Radtsig, S. I. Istoriia drevnegrecheskoi literatury, 2nd ed. [Moscow] 1959.
Burn, A. R. The World of Hesiod. London, 1936.
Solmsen, F. Hesiod and Aeschylus. [New York] 1949.
Hésiode et son influence. Geneva-Paris, 1960.



8th century bc, Greek poet and the earliest author of didactic verse. His two complete extant works are the Works and Days, dealing with the agricultural seasons, and the Theogony, concerning the origin of the world and the genealogies of the gods


The name server of the Athena project.

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The attributes which enable Penelope to do all this are of course precisely the deceitful qualities with which Hermes endowed Pandora: for with women--as even Hesiod admits--although most of the time what appears to be good turns out bad, there are a few occasions on which apparently undesirable qualities can be turned to beneficial ends.
Hesiod, in Works and Days, mentioned "the dank house of chill Hades.
215) and Homer and Hesiod in their recognition of the relation of argument and action (p.
More tantalizing is that in conjunction with this Philochorus then cites a fragment attributed, perhaps wrongly, to Hesiod (F 357 MW):
According to Works and Days poem by the ancient Greek poet Hesiod, she is the first Greek woman created on Earth by Zeus.
Hesiod singles himself out by name as the bearer of a poetic, distinctly human wisdom that contrasts in its weakness with the powerful, divine wisdom of Zeus.
Recoge aqui el fruto de numerosas investigaciones anteriores, tales como: A Reflection on Hesiod s Cosmos.
The two examples of the noun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in Homer and Hesiod thus point to the context as the prima causa of the feeling of helplessness.
Greco traces Choricius' employment of Hesiod as the iconic hard-working poet (relevant for the importance of practice in Choricius' educational context) back to Plato's distinction between manic Homer and truthful, morally upright Hesiod (pp.
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They examine theories (such as those of foreignness by Homer and Hesiod, genealogies and origins, environmental theories, genetic theories, and custom or culture theories), and present the composition of the peoples of the ancient world (Egypt, Libya, Carthage and Numidia, Ethiopia, Persia, the Parthians, Judea and the Jewish diaspora, and China and the edge of the world), then analyze Europe's Black Sea region, Gaul, Germany and Britain.
Ranging down through the halls of history from Homer and Hesiod, to Sophocles, Plato, and Aristotle, to Philon of Larissa and Cicero of Rome, to Josephus, Plutarch and Justinian, to Dante Aligheiri, William of Ockham, and Petrarch, to Leonardo Da Vinci, Martin Luther, and Copernicus, to Queen Elizabeth, William Shakespeare, and Locke, and so many more, we are treated to a wealth of historical personalities, their lives, accomplishments and influences.