Hesychasm

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Hesychasm

 

(from the Greek hesychia, “quiet,” “silence,” “detachment”), a mystic trend in Byzantium.

Hesychasm is used in two senses. In the more general meaning, hesychasm is an ethicoascetic teaching on the path of man to union with god through “purification of the heart” by tears and through concentration of consciousness within itself; to achieve this, a set of techniques for psychophysical self-control was devised, which bears some outward resemblance to the methods of Yoga (the inclined sitting posture, regulation of breathing and circulation, constant mistrust of spontaneous “wishes,” and the practice of the so-called Jesus Prayer, entailing single-minded repetition of the very same phrase several thousand times in succession). The teaching was created by Egyptian and Sinaitic ascetics of the fourth through seventh centuries (Macarius the Egyptian, Evagrius, and John Climacus). During the religious restoration of the 14th century it underwent renewal and development; by no means was this an original creation. Only in this sense can one speak of the hesychasm of Gregory Sinaites and of his Russian followers (Nil Sorskii, for example).

In the narrower sense hesychasm is taken to mean the religio-philosophical teaching that Gregorius Palamas elaborated in disputes with spokesmen for theological rationalism, a teaching that included the thesis of the distinction between the essence and the energies of god (the doctrine of the uncreated nature of the “light of Mount Tabor”). Palamism, which historically was combined with a sociopolitical position supporting Emperor John Cantacuzenus, was after a prolonged struggle declared official Orthodox teaching at the local Blachernae Synod in 1351.

REFERENCES

Uspenskii, F. Ocherki po istorii vizantiiskoi obrazovannosti. St. Petersburg, 1891. Pages 246–364.
Syrku, P. K istorii ispravleniia knig v Bolgarii v XIV v., vol. 1, part 1. St. Petersburg, 1899. Pages 78–102, 168–240.
Ostrogorskii, G. “Afonskie isikhasty i ikh protivniki.” Zapiski Russkogo nauchnogo in-ta v Belgrade, 1931 [issue 5].
Prokhorov, G. M. “Isikhasm i obshchestvennaia mysP v Vostochnoi Evrope v XIV v.” In Trudy otdela drevnerusskoi literatury, vol. 23. Leningrad, 1968. Pages 86–108.
Lossky, V. Théologie mystique de Téglise d’orient. Paris, 1960.
Ivanka, E. von. “Hesychasmus und Polamismus.” Jahrbuch der öster-reichischen Byzantinischen Gesellschaft, 1952, vol. 2, pp. 23–34.

S. S. AVERINTSEV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(7) Given his need for a single idea to saturate the cognitive environment of 'the mind' such that it became a 'dominant idea', Coue eventually settled on an ancient, tried-and-true Hesychast ritual and, from that, he constructed a formula ("Every day in every way I'm getting better and better") that was appropriate to his therapeutic goals and, also, to the ritual's mechanics.
He believed that the light that the Hesychasts saw was the uncreated light of God's energies.
Barlaam and Palamas both accepted that the Hesychasts had an experience of light, but they disagreed on the nature of the light, and therefore what it signified.
In the hesychasts of the Holy Mountain we find prayer closely related with the practice of purification and enlightenment.
Regarding the details of the practice of enlightenment in the hesychasts we have limited information, as the sources do not have many details.
The term Hesychast was used since the sixth century while the practice of inner focus and blocking of the physical senses dates from even earlier period.
The most celebrated expression of the Hesychast movement in Russia are its icons, whose silent language became the visual rendering of the movement's spirit.
As far as the Buddhist experience of the Rainbow Body is concerned, it shares with the hesychast approach, first, the visual sensory dimension of light and luminosity and, second, the concrete experiential praxis and cultivation of enlightening one's body through working with the mind.
His greatest work, Triads in Defense of the Holy Hesychasts, is not systematically ordered and lacks any codified treatment of theological language, so we cannot go to his text and conveniently find a treatment of antinomy.
(14) Defense des saints hesychastes: Introduction, texte critique, traduction et notes, ed.
In particular, he draws attention to Gregory's developed notion of the perichoresis of the divine Persons in his brief discussion of Podskalsky's critique of the Hesychast.
In his Defense of the Holy Hesychasts Gregory posited that the human person could attain to a knowledge of God beyond what scripture mediates because, through the process of divinization (Gk.