Conjugated BS need to be actively transported into cholangiocytes via apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT, gene SLC10A2) and are exported into the peribiliary capillary plexus via the heterodimeric
transporter OST[alpha]-OST[beta] and via MRP3 [28, 29].
When IL-31 binds to its heterodimeric
receptor composed of the IL-31RA/ OSMR complex, it induces the phosphorylation of the JAK1/2, and subsequently it induces the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT, and it activates STAT pathway [12, 23].
The PriL would also be poised to take part in the mechanism of RNA counting and further primer processing probably due to its position within the heterodimeric
primase relative to the nascent RNA primer.
PI3K enzymes are members of a family of intracellular heterodimeric
kinases, composed of regulatory and catalytic subunits that recruit lipids as second messengers.
assembly appeared to modify the intracellular response to NTS .
IL-27 is a heterodimeric
cytokine composed of the subunits p28 and EBI3, which binds to the heterodimeric
TR[beta] and PPAR receptors are linked by the same obligatory coreceptor, retinoid X receptor (RXR), that binds to their heterodimeric
partners before binding to DNA.
Extracellularly secreted IL-33 binds to ST2 and activates a heterodimeric
receptor complex, comprising ST2 andinterleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) on the plasma membrane, to recruit and activate myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), followed by activation of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)  (Figure 1).
The hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric
transcription factor associated with hypoxia and hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis, metastasis, and resistance to chemo/radiotherapy, therefore with different tumor pathways [22, 23].
BCKCD is a 4million Dalton macromolecule and consists of heterodimeric
E1 decarboxylase component (E1a and E1b subunits), E2 transacylase that consists of 24 subunits and 1 homodimer E3 component .
Integrins are heterodimeric
transmembrane receptor proteins, consisting of [alpha] and [beta] subunits, which mediate adhesion and interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix [8, 19].
Seeger, "Crystal structure of a heterodimeric
ABC transporter in its inward-facing conformation," Nature Structural and Molecular Biology, vol.