Desmogleins and desmocollins are capable of binding to one another, and in fact there is evidence that heterodimers
are preferred (Huber, 2003).
Usually the VDREs consist of a direct repeat of two hexanucleotides spaced by three nucleotides (DR-3), to which VDR preferentially binds as a heterodimer
with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) (MacDonald et al.
(3) If both subunits are the same, the enzyme is a homodimer; if the two subunits differ, it is a heterodimer
ATRA also slightly activated the FXR-RXR heterodimer
, due to the activation of RXR.
Since the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) was first discovered as a preassembled cytokine receptor core, there have been subsequent reports regarding [gamma]c cytokine-independent preassembled IL-2R[beta], IL-4R[alpha], and IL-9R[alpha] homodimer or heterodimer
On the other hand, Bach1:sMaf heterodimers
act as negative regulator of the HMOX-1 gene and its role is supported by genetic data .
reported that activation of LXR/RXR heterodimers
by a combination of the LXR agonist T0901317 with the RxR agonist 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in MIN6 cells and isolated rat islets, though T0901317 showed no effect on proliferation of MIN6 cells by itself .
Mangelsdorf, "Retinoid X receptor heterodimers
in the metabolic syndrome," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol.
AP1 transcription factors can theoretically form eighteen different homo- and heterodimers
, and work in other systems show that the particular dimer that is formed influences activity.
Ligand activated PPARs bind as heterodimers
with the RXRs on PPAR response elements.
All phosphorylation events can disrupt the association of mature full-length CRMP-2 with tubulin heterodimers
possibly resulting in the destabilisation of the neuronal microtubule system rendering axonal retraction .
TRs generally act as homodimers or heterodimers
with a retinoid X receptor (RXR) partner and control transcription of target genes (Marchand et al., 2001).