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see ChristmasberryChristmasberry
or toyon
, evergreen tree or shrub (Photinia arbutifolia) of the family Rosaceae (rose family), found on the Pacific coast of North America.
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Valladares and Pearcy (1998) working with sun and shade plants of Heteromeles arbutifolia, a Californian chaparral shrub, reported that sun leaves have higher leaf mass per unit area than shade leaves.
Occasional individuals of Arbutus peninsularis, Prunus serotina subsp, virens and Heteromeles arbutifolia
The dominant genera of woody plant in this chaparral, such as Adenostoma, Ceanothus, Heteromeles and Rhus, are not usually found in the other regions with a Mediterranean climate or they do not play such an important role.
1992), Asparagus scandens and Knowltownia vesicatoria in South Africa (Adamson and Salter 1950), and Heteromeles arbutifolia and Rhus (Toxicodendron) diversiloba in California (Thomas 1961).
One of the island shrubs (Ceanothus) has significantly lower concentrations of the compounds than the mainland version, while the island Christmas berry (Heteromeles) actually has more tannin for part of the year.
Pearcy, "Interactions between water stress, sun-shade acclimation, heat tolerance and photoinhibition in the sclerophyll Heteromeles arbutifolia," Plant, Cell & Environment, vol.
Plant species composition for each site varied slightly, but all contained California lilac (Ceanothus griseus), coffeeberry (Rhamnus californica), California buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum), toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia), elderberry (Sambucus mexicana) and coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis).
Understory species included toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia), hollyleaf redberry (Rhamnus crocea), bigberry manzanita (Arctostaphylos glauca), ceanothus (Ceanothus), and poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum; Vreeland and Tietje 1998).
Hall et al., 1975; Khairi & Hall, 1976a, 1976b; Sheriff, 1977; Johnson & Ferrell, 1983 Eremocitrus glaucax Khairi & Hall, 1976b Fraxinus americana Davies & Kozlowski, 1974 Hedera helix Aphalo & Jarvis, 1991 Heteromeles arbutifolia Winner & Mooney, 1980 Picea engelmannii Johnson & Ferrell, 1983 Picea sitchensis Grace et al., 1975 Populus spp.
Otros componentes comunes son "ramon" (Cercocarpus spp.), "toyon" (Heteromeles arbutifolia) y "yuca" (Yucca whipplei) (Rzedowski, 1978).