Risk factors for development of heterotopic ossification
of the elbow after fracture fixation.
Impact of clinically significant heterotopic ossification
on functional outcome after traumatic brain injury.
Risk factors for the development of heterotopic ossification
after acetabular fracture fixation.
Alternatively, NSAIDs may be used as prophylaxis against heterotopic ossification
, acting by blocking the inflammatory response, which normally stimulates osteoinduction.
The patient was also found to have high PTH levels, subclinical hypothyroidism, and heterotopic ossifications
. While patients with AHO are usually obese, the BMI level of our patient was in the underweight group according to the World Health Organization guidelines.
Histologic examination of the mass showed heterotopic ossification
with the ballistic cavity in the soft tissue adjacent to the skin (Fig 4).
Clinical significance of the heterotopic ossification
after total hip arthroplasty.
Our patients' total knee arthroplasty surgeries' complications are superficial infection (1.12%), fatal pulmonary embolism (0.18%), symptomatic pulmonary embolism (1.25%), serous or serohematoz discharges (0.62%), peroneal nerve injury (2.18%), infection (0.62%), patellofemoral instability (14.6%), periprostetic fracture (1.25%), heterotopic ossification
(6.87%), limitation of motion (10.3%), patellar fracture (2.81%), patellar clunck syndrome (3.75%), unexplained pain (0.62%), loosening (0.93%) and ruptured posterior cruciate ligament (0.31%).
(2,6) The heterotopic ossification
in soft tissues was examined and found to be of normal bone by all means.
(HO) is defined as the abnormal deposition of mature, lamellar bone in nonosseous tissues, especially in skeletal muscle .
Previous studies have shown that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), known to be a primary inducer of bone formation, plays an important role in heterotopic ossification
in several types of cancer.[sup.1]-[sup.3] Interestingly, a more recent study found that coordination of BMP2 and Wnt/[beta]-catenin signaling may be involved in the process of osteoplastic differentiation and subsequent bone formation,[sup.4] while [beta]-catenin has also been reported to induce BMP2 expression in gastrointestinal cancer cells.[sup.5] We report a case of adrenal ML showing heterotopic bone formation with overexpression of BMP2 and [beta]-catenin, indicating the possible involvement of BMP2 and the Wnt/[beta]-catenin signaling pathway in heterotopic ossification